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Lean Manufacturing Techniques and Computer Simulations in Manufacturing Systems Review (Research Paper Sample)


Arial, size 12. I need some literature review on the topic of "Computer Simulation" and "Lean Manufacturing". The main context of the review should be related to Manufacturing System. They should be separated into two different sections. I don't need an introduction or any other report structures, but only two sections for the above topics. Expected sources are 8, feel free to use more if it makes it easier for you. Thank you so much.


Literature Review: Lean manufacturing techniques and computer simulations in manufacturing systems
Lean manufacturing is a production method that seeks to minimize waste and enhance the efficiency of manufacturing systems like production lines or factory assembly lines. The method has its origins from the Japanese manufacturing lines. Researchers believe that the lean system evolved in the Toyota production lines. Many researchers have delved into studying the lean manufacturing methodology and its applications in manufacturing systems.
Sundar et al. (2014) approached the impact of lean manufacturing in production systems by analyzing the key elements of the technique. According to the findings of their research, the lean manufacturing techniques reduce waste in production systems by separating manufacturing processes into value activities and non-value activities. The lean manufacturing method then eliminates non-value activities. Sundar et al. (2014) also note that an organization has to implement all the lean elements for the lean technique to be successful. These lean elements include value stream mapping (VSM), cellular manufacturing (CM), continuous improvement (kaizen), U-line system, line balancing, inventory control, pull system, Kanban, and production leveling. The research by Sundar et al. (2014) also focused on creating the procedure in which an organization can implement the lean manufacturing methodology.
Sundar et al. (2014) explain that VSM is the process of mapping the flow of material and information in the production or assembly line. This process enables the elimination of non-core activities. The grouping of equipment necessary for the production of similar products or parts is known as CM. This process reduces the time taken between processes. The U-line manufacturing process enhances the efficiency of the production process by reducing the work stations and improving communication, handling of material, and visibility. Kaizen ensures that the manufacturing system in the production line or assembly line continuously improves to be more efficient. Kaizen also ensures that lean manufacturing technology continuously applies to the production method throughout the life cycle of the production process.
The lean elements discussed above form the road map that Sundar et al (2014) propose in their study. This road map, despite being somewhat complex, is detailed and follows the lean elements in a sequence. Their road map incorporates the following elements:
1. Value stream mapping.
2. The identification of the implementation gap and grouping the technology, parts, and machines.
3. Implementation of CM.
4. Implementation of the U-Line system and line balancing.
5. Implementation of the pull system.
6. Elimination of problematic issues regarding the quality of source inputs.
7. Eradication of mistakes through proofing or automation.
8. Implementing Kanban.
9. Standardization and Kaizen.
However, the research by Nguyen and Do (2016) established a simpler and detailed road map for the implementation of the lean manufacturing method. Like the road map established by Sundar et al. (2014), these steps also incorporate the lean elements. However, these steps focus on the elimination of waste in all sectors of the workplace and also on ensuring workers in the production line understand and appreciate the lean manufacturing process. Research by Nguyen and Do (2016) demonstrated that the implementation of the lean manufacturing technique follows seven basic steps, including:
1. Primary analysis. This process involves an examination of existing products, production techniques, and the handling of inventory and finished products to establish the core and non-core activities and the value and non-value processes. This process also incorporates the study of the lean manufacturing methodology to ensure that the employees understand the process of its implementation (Nguyen and Do, 2016).
2. Basic training. This process involves training the employees about the lean manufacturing methodology and its application in the production process.
3. Optimization of the workplace.
4. Internal logistic evaluation. This process creates an effective design for the movement of inventory, products, and components within various production processes and areas, including the factory and warehouses.
5. Cardboard engineering. This step involves the creation of an efficient workplace model. The model is then altered and adjusted according to the needs of the workers and the production system. However, these adjustments do not compromise the efficiency of the model.
6. Layout design. This process involves creating a workplace and factory layout as modeled in the cardboard engineering phase.
7. Implementation of the system and its subsequent review.
This methodology ensures that the implementation of the lean technique is detailed and systematic with minimal disruptions (Nguyen and Do, 2016). All these steps involve the utilization of lean elements. A specific knowledgeable project leader should head the implementation of the lean manufacturing technique in an organization to ensure that the process is smooth and well-coordinated. The research of Nguyen and Do (2016) follows the same lean elements as the study by Sundar et al. (2014).
Nguyen and Do (2016) also established similar findings in their research. Their findings explain that the lean manufacturing methodology targets factors in the manufacturing process like defects and wastes, lead times, inventory handling, the productivity of the various process, and the utilization of machines, labor, and space. Nguyen and Do (2016, p. 592) also found the value stream mapping process to be a crucial factor in the implementation of the lean process. They established that VSM separates non-crucial activities, which are also inefficient from crucial and efficient activities. The lean manufacturing system then eliminates these non-crucial and inefficient activities.
According to Sundar et al. (2014), kaizen is the most important factor in the lean manufacturing system. Kaizen emphasizes the continuous improvement of the manufacturing process to ensure a reduction in wasteful activities. However, all the lean elements are crucial and must be implemented to ensure a successful lean system. Furthermore, to ensure that the lean manufacturing system works effectively, an organization has to focus also on issues like lack of direction, poor planning, and poor sequencing of production processes in the manufacturing system (Sundar et al., 2014). An organization should also implement the lean manufacturing system in the shortest time to ensure minimal disruptions in the manufacturing process.
Zahraee et al., (2014) approached their study on the lean manufacturing methodology through the value stream mapping (VSM) technique. Zahraee et al. (2014) opined that the importance of the VSM arose due to the progress achieved by the Toyota Company in the 20th century. According to this study, manufacturing companies that employ lean techniques are some of the most profitable organizations in the world. This study reveals that the objectives of the lean manufacturing methodology and the VSM technique are very similar since both focus on the elimination of wasteful manufacturing processes in the assembly line. The VSM is a process that aims to evaluate production processes to identify value and non-value processes. Lean manufacturing technology also aims to improve the efficiency of the production process by eliminating wasteful non-value processes. Zahraee et al., (2014) also established that lean manufacturing incorporate critical elements like Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing for inventory management, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), and cellular manufacturing (CM).
The findings of the study by Zahraee et al. (2014) concluded that reducing inventory wastage, and improving the communication flow between processes significantly reduces the inefficiencies and wasteful processes in a manufacturing system. Inventory wastage increases holding costs and ordering costs while inefficient communication flow between production processes leads to duplication of tasks, which is costly and inefficient. The lean manufacturing technique aims to reduce these wastes and inefficiencies. The JIT technique is a crucial lean element that can effectively reduce wastage of stock, inputs, and work in progress. On the other hand, the VSM technique can improve the communication flow between the production process.
The study by Zahraee et al. (2014) looked at three key elements of VSM. These elements are the current state map, takt time, and future state map. The current state map represents the present flow of information, inputs, and components in the production line. The study evaluated the current state map using the Rother and Shook concept. This concept evaluates the current state map using the beginning catalog levels of each process, the cycle times, the waiting times between the processes, number of workers and labor hours, and the time of conversion. The takt time is the waiting time between each production process in the manufacturing system. In other words, the takt time is the average time taken between the commencement of one production process and another. This factor is important in enabling JIT processing. According to Zahraee et al. (2014),
The future state map represents the VSM after segregating and eliminating the non-value activities. This map represents the most efficient flow of information, input, and components in the production process. To create a future state map, the manufacturer has to eliminate bottlene...

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