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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Research Paper
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Cancer Biological & Biomedical Sciences Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)


An epidemiological research paper on corelectal cancer


Student’s Name
Course Name
Instructor’s Name
Systemic therapy (treatments) of colorectal cancer
Background Information on Colorectal Cancer
According to available data, among cancers that affect both genders, colorectal cancer has been found to be the second leading killer in the United States and it is the second most common type of cancer in the world (CDC 2017). It is a form of cancer that occurs in the rectum and the colon; it occurs when tumors start developing in the large intestine lining. It may be malignant which implies that cancerous tumors may spread to other body parts thereby causing damage, or it can be benign which means that the tumor will not spread (National Collaborating Centre for Cancer 2011). Medical studies have established that this form of cancer mostly start with a growth known as a polyp on the internal rectum or colon lining. Some kinds of polyp can transform into cancer after several years while others may not result in cancer (American Cancer Society 2017). The kind of polyp, adenomatous polyps or hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps, determines whether it will become a cancer or not. The adenomatous polyps often change into cancer. While hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps are more common, they generally do not lead to cancer (Young et al 14). Colorectal cancer only affects people of either genders, but also people of all ethnic and racial groups, but it is mostly prevalent in people who are aged 50 years or more. It has also been found out that about 1 in every 20 people are likely to develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime, with men being at a slightly higher risk compared to women (Thelin and Sikka 2007).
The common signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer include constipation, blood in the stool, inexplicable fatigue, a feeling that bowel does not completely empty, vomiting and nausea, stools that are unusually narrower, inexplicable weight loss, frequent cramps or gas pains, unexplained deficiency of iron in men and women, diarrhea, and a lump in the back passage or in the tummy (Brown 2007). Although the medical experts are not fully sure why this kind of cancer occurs in certain people and not in others, they have identified a number of risk factors that are likely to increase an individual’s possibility of developing this disease (National Collaborating Centre for Cancer 2011). The identified factors include: being elderly especially above 50 years; frequent consumption of diet very rich in animal protein; excessive consumption of alcohol; being obese or overweight; eating diet high in saturated fats; a family with colorectal cancer history; consuming diet very low in fiber; physical inactivity; patients with ulcerative colitis; diets which are very rich in calories. Smoking; women who have had uterus, ovary, and breast cancer; patients with Irritable Bowel Disease or Crohn’s disease; and presence of untreated polyps in rectum or colon (Young et al 25).

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