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1 page/≈275 words
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4 Sources
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APA
Subject:
Social Sciences
Type:
Research Proposal
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Second-Hand Smoking Effects on Children and the Public (Research Proposal Sample)

Instructions:

Children in America should be able to utilize public places without exposure to second-hand smoke from tobacco. Unfortunately, children continue to suffer the effects of the multitude of toxic chemicals in tobacco from inhaled second-hand smoke in public areas. Should the EPA add new regulations on smoking tobacco in public spaces to reduce its harmful effects on children?

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Second-hand Smoke Effects in Public Spaces
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Problem Statement
Children in America should be able to utilize public places without exposure to second-hand smoke from tobacco. Unfortunately, children continue to suffer the effects of the multitude of toxic chemicals in tobacco from inhaled second-hand smoke in public areas. Should the EPA add new regulations on smoking tobacco in public spaces to reduce its harmful effects on children?
Introduction
Second-hand smoking (SHS) is described as the inhalation of smoke exhaled by the smoker and usually in combination with the smoke emitted from the burning end of the cigarette. The high prevalence of second-hand smoking attributes to approximately 600,000 deaths annually worldwide, with 31% of the death occurring among children (Nanninga, Lhachimi, & Bolte, 2018). In the United States, approximately 41,000 deaths are caused by SHS annually. Approximately more than 58 million non-smokers are exposed to second-hand smoke in America with 40.6% being children. Based on the above figures, SHS is a serious health hazard that is less regulated thus causing significant health problems to the population especially the infants and the children. Children in public spaces are often exposed to the toxic chemicals from cigarettes as a result of SHS thus leading to severe health complications and in some cases death (Public Health Law Center, 2017). The increasing effects of SHS in public places have led to calls for EPA to develop new regulations that are aimed at protecting the children from the harmful effects of smoking.
Based on its significant impact on the population, the environmental problem of second-hand smoking involves various key stakeholders who participate in different capacities. One of the key stakeholders is the public; smokers and the children. Children are often exposed to SHS in public spaces due to the sharing of the same space with various people including those that smoke (Nanninga, Lhachimi, & Bolte, 2018). Lack of regulations restricting smoking in public spaces including parks, restaurants, public vehicles, and even public institutions exposes children to the risks of SHS. The other stakeholders involved in SHS are the clinicians who deal with the health problems caused by the environmental problem. Children often exposed to SHS are at risk of developing health problems including respiratory and pulmonary infections, impaired endothelial functions, sudden infant death syndrome, asthma and bronchitis, otitis media among other health complications. Clinicians are affected by the high number of health complications that can be prevented by banning public smoking where children are exposed to SHS. Clinicians play a significant role in treating and managing of these health complications thus their identification as key stakeholders in SHS. On the other hand, businesses are also stakeholders as they manufacture, distribute and sell the cigarettes for the public to consume. Businesses are primarily focused on the profits coming from their ventures and use various methods to lure people into smoking. As stakeholders, businesses role in the SHS environmental problem is ensuring the availability of cigarettes for the public. Policymakers are also contributing to the SHS environmental problem by regulating smoking in places where non-smokers are exposed to the dangers of the practice. As stakeholders, their role is to protect the public while ensuring that the smokers are also treated fairly and not infringing on their rights. Advocacy groups are also key stakeholders in SHS as they participate in activities that are calling for safer smoking practices that reduce the risk to the public especially the non-smokers (Center for the study of International Medical Policies and Practices (CSIMPP), 2016). Advocacy groups 

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