Proposed Research Design: Resilience And Entrepreneurship (Research Proposal Sample)
SUBJECT NAME: Research Methods
REFERENCE: HARVARD STYLE (MINIMUM 24 AND WITHIN 8 YEARS OLD)
LENGTH: 2450 words
ASSESSMENT TASK 3: PROPOSED RESEARCH DESIGN (TOPIC: RESILIENCE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP) - FOLLOW THE RECOMMENDED STRUCTURE AND USE HEADINGS FOR THE SUBSECTIONS
Purpose To learn how to write a research proposal
Having identified and argued the importance of your topic of interest (Assessment task 1, PROVIDED) and reviewed the literature on that topic (Assessment task 2, PROVIDED), you must now apply the methodological knowledge and frameworks you have gained during this unit (i.e., the prescribed literature, PROVIDED) to propose a research design that will allow you to systematically, empirically, and rigorously investigate and answer your selected research question.
The research design proposal should include:
A brief (re-)statement the topic and research question, and possible refinements as a result of insights gained after having completed Assessment tasks 1 and 2 (e.g., the prescribed literature, feedback from your lecturer);
A comprehensive description of your proposed research design, covering all relevant elements – such as type of design, data sources, data collection method, measurement instruments, research setting, sampling method, negotiating access and maximizing response, and time frame – using the methodological terminology and frameworks from the prescribed literature;
Beyond merely describing what your proposed research design looks like, it is equally important that you clearly justify your choices. That is, you need to use the methodological considerations and frameworks from the prescribed literature to argue why the research choices you propose will enable you to examine and answer your research question in a way that is methodologically superior to other research design choices;
This also means that you will need to critically evaluate both the strengths and weaknesses of your design and how your research design choices will impact the validity of the conclusions you will be able to derive from your research;
The proposal should describe research that you can realistically carry out, so you need to consider not only methodological requirements, but also practical and ethical constraints associated with your proposed design;
• Finally, provide some preliminary ideas about how you would go about analysing your data.
GUIDELINES FOR ASSESSMENT TASK 3: PROPOSED RESEARCH DESIGN
The meat of a research proposal is the methods section. You have been preparing for the entire unit to assemble a rigorous, well-justified, feasible, and ethical research design for your proposed study. This proposal ought to resemble the methods section of most scholarly articles in your topic area.
Your task for the third assessment is to
(1) write up a thorough and well-justified methods section for your proposed project;
(2) discuss how the proposed study is feasible and ethical; and
(3) reflect on the strengths and limitations of your proposed study using concepts covered in the course.
These 3 elements of your assessment task map directly onto the marking rubrics:
Criteria 1 and 2 refer to your methods section.
Comprehensiveness of research design description (10 Marks) = The description is very comprehensive and complete, covering all elements, clearly highlighting nuances and complexities. Indicates that student has a remarkably clear and in-depth idea of exactly how s/he will proceed to conduct the empirical study.
Substantiation of research design choices (10 Marks) = There is an excellent substantiation of why specific research design choices were made, and it's very complete and comprehensive. An assessment of the research design's strengths, weaknesses, and validity implications is present and correctly in all places. Indicates a remarkably in-depth understanding of how research design choices affect one's ability to answer research questions.
Criteria 3 refers to your discussion of feasibility and ethics.
Thoughtfulness of practical and ethical considerations (10 Marks) = There is an excellent discussion of practical and ethical considerations, and it's very complete and comprehensive. Issues are correctly identified in all places. Indicates remarkably careful thought about the practical feasibility of the proposed research design.
Criteria 4 refers to your reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of your research design, drawing on unit's readings and online content to make your arguments.
Systematic application of concepts and frameworks from the unit's literature (10 Marks) = Heavily draws on the concepts/frameworks from the prescribed literature. Uses them consistently and in a systematic manner, and applies them in the correct manner. Indicates remarkably in-depth understanding of the prescribed literature. Complements this with recommended literature.
Structure, clarity of expression, visualisation, and referencing (10 Marks) = The text is highly logically and well-structured. There are virtually no issues with sentence formulation, grammar, spelling and/or punctuation. Makes very effective use visualisations to clarify or organise the content in the text in meaningful ways. Referencing is complete, consistent and follows established guidelines.
FOLLOW THIS!!! RECOMMENDED STRUCTURE:
• Start with a brief (re-)statement of the topic and research question (one paragraph).
• Use the first major section to cover all relevant elements of the research methods. Be sure to both DESCRIBE AND JUSTIFY your choices. USE HEADINGS FOR THE FOLLOWING SUBSECTIONS:
o RESEARCH DESIGN section: describe whether you have chosen to conduct a quant or qual study, as well as the specific type of quant or qual study (e.g. field survey, quasi-experiment, participant observation, semi-structured interviews).
o RESEARCH SETTING section: describe the setting in which the study will be conducted.
o PARTICIPANTS section: summarize and justify the intended sample, sampling strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria to be used. If planning to use secondary data, consult with your lecturer for slightly revised guidelines.
o PROCEDURE section: summarize and justify how you will collect data, including but not limited to securing organizational access, recruiting participants, maximizing response rates, and collecting data (when, how often, from whom, which variables). If planning to use secondary data, consult with your lecturer for slightly revised guidelines.
o MATERIALS section
• If quant, list the psychometrically validated measures to be used (if opting to construct your own measure, please consult your lecturer for revised guidelines) and any evidence that the measure is valid.
• If qual, outline the interview schedule you plan to use (questions, probes) with supporting justification.
• If using secondary data, describe in detail the indices to be used and any evidence for their validity.
• Note: Remember that the term ‘valid' has a precise meaning in research. If you are unsure, consult your lecturer.
o ANALYSIS section – very briefly describe how you would know if your hypothesis were supported (quant, secondary data), or how you would distil answers to your research question from the qualitative data to be collected (qual)
• THE SECOND SECTION (2-3 paragraphs) covers feasibility and ethics. Briefly summarize in one paragraph each the practical feasibility and ethical considerations in your study. For the paragraph on ethical considerations, you are expected to:
(1) IDENTIFY POSSIBLE HARMS TO PARTICIPANTS FROM PARTICIPATING IN THE STUDY; AND
(2) EXPLAIN PRECISELY HOW YOU MITIGATE THAT HARM IN YOUR RESEARCH DESIGN. IN A SEPARATE SHORT PARAGRAPH, YOU MAY ALSO BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS OF YOUR PROPOSED STUDY FOR PRACTICE. EXPLAIN EXACTLY HOW THE KNOWLEDGE GENERATED IN YOUR STUDY CAN BE USED IN THE WORKPLACE.
• USE THE THIRD SECTION (2-4 paragraphs) to summarize both the STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS of your proposed study, linking back to principles in the unit readings. Just as in the first two assessment tasks, whenever you draw on criteria from unit content, please be explicit.
• Word limit is 2,450 words. The word limit excludes references.
• Look to the methods sections of high-quality articles in your area for inspiration. That's the kind of writing and structure that we are looking for.
• Don't forget to justify your methodology choices! That's the entire 2nd criterion of the rubric.
(Substantiation of research design choices (10 Marks) = There is an excellent substantiation of why specific research design choices were made, and it's very complete and comprehensive. An assessment of the research design's strengths, weaknesses, and validity implications is present and correctly in all places. Indicates a remarkably in-depth understanding of how research design choices affect one's ability to answer research questions.)
• High-quality writing is important. Researchers need to be understood by the general public. The most important thing is that the writing is organized logically. A few grammatical errors will not be too bad. However, writing that is incomprehensible or lacking logical structure will earn poor marks on the last criterion in the rubric. (Structure, clarity of expression, visualisation, and referencing (10 Marks) = The text is highly logically and well-structured. There are virtually no issues with sentence formulation, grammar, spelling and/or punctuation. Makes very effective use visualisations to clarify or organise the content in the text in meaningful ways. Referencing is complete, consistent and follows established guidelines.)
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornbill, A. (2016). Research Methods for Business Students. Pearson, 7th edn, England.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 5 – Formulating the research design.
• Edmondson, A. C., & McManus, S. E. (2007). Methodological fit in management field research. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1155–1179.
• Creswell, W., Hanson, W. E., Clark Plano, V. L., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(2), 236-264.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 11 – Collecting primary data using questionnaires.
• Grant, A. M., & Wall, T. D. (2009). The neglected science and art of quasi-experimentation: Why-to, when-to, and how-to advice for organizational researchers. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 653-686.
• Robinson, M. A. (in press). Using multi-item psychometric scales for research and practice in human resource management. Human Resource Management.
• Colquitt, J. A. (2008). Publishing laboratory research in AMJ: A question of if, not when. Academy of Management Journal, 51(4), 616-620. Accessible through: http://aom.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/AMJ/04_ColquittAug08FTE.pdf
• Simsek, Z., Veiga, J. F., & Lubatkin, M. H. (2005). Challenges and guidelines for conducting internet-based surveys and strategic management research. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, 2, 179–196.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 5 - Formulating the research design, pp. 178-183, which focus on experiments and surveys.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 10 – Collecting primary data using semi-structured, in-depth, and group interviews.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 9 – Collecting primary data through observation.
• Rowley, J. (2012). Conducting research interviews. Management Research Review, 35(3/4), 260-271.
• Hermanowicz, J.C. (2002). The Great Interview: 25 Strategies for Studying People in Bed. Qualitative Sociology, 25(4), 479-499.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 6 – Negotiating access and research ethics (pp. 220-239).
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 7 – Selecting samples.
• Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Dorrit Guassora, A. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: Guided by information power. Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1753–1760.
• Shen, W., Kiger, T. B., Davies, S. E., Rasch, R. L., Simon, K. M., & Ones, D. S. (2011). Samples in applied psychology: Over a decade of research in review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 1055– 1064.
• Anseel, F. Lievens, F., Schollaert, E., & Choragwicka, B. (2010). Response rates in organizational science, 1995–2008: A meta-analytic review and guidelines for survey researchers. Journal of Business & Psychology, 25, 335–349.
• Grant, A. M., & Wall, T. D. (2009). The neglected science and art of quasi-experimentation: Why-to, when-to, and how-to advice for organizational researchers. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 653-686.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 8 – Using secondary data.
• Barnes, C. M., Dang, C. T., Leavitt, K., Guarana, C. L., & Uhlmann, E. L. (forthcoming). Archival data in micro-organizational research: A toolkit for moving to a broader set of topics. Journal of Management.
• Ketchen, D. J., Ireland, R. D., & Baker, L. T. (2013). The use of archival proxies in strategic management studies: Castles made of sand? Organizational Research Methods, 16(1), 32-42.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 5 – Formulating the research design (pp. 201-207).
• Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W., & Wicki, B. (2008). What passes as a rigorous case study? Strategic Management Journal, 29, 1465–1474.
• Stone-Romero, E. F. (2002). The relative validity and usefulness of various empirical research designs. In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 77-98). Malden: Blackwell.
• McGrath, J.E. (1981). Dilemmatics: The study of research choices and dilemmas. American Behavioral Scientist, 25(2), 179-210.
• Brutus, S., Aguinis, H., & Wassmer, U. (2013). Self-reported limitations and future directions in scholarly reports: Analysis and recommendations. Journal of Management, 39(1), 48–75.
o Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 6 – Negotiating access and research ethics (pp. 239-263)
o Buchanan, D. A., & Bryman, A. (2007). Contextualizing methods choice in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 10(3), 483-501.
• Johnson, B., & Turner, L. A. (2003). Data collection strategies in mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 297-319). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 2 – Formulating and clarifying your research topic (pp. 53-60).
• Saunders et al. (2016), Chapter 14 – Writing and presenting your project report.
Research proposal website of the University of Western Australia: http://www.postgraduate.uwa.edu.au/students/proposals/preparing.
ASSESSMENT TASK 3: PROPOSED RESEARCH DESIGN (TOPIC: RESILIENCE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP)
First and foremost, it is critical to understand the definitions of the two concepts to ascertain their relationship and the influence they have on each other. Resilience refers to the ability of an entrepreneur to adapt to the business environment despite the many challenges that are always arising in a business venture. In detail, resilience entails the ability of entrepreneurs to protect their business from the many threats that are characteristic in any business. The business environment is always changing, and there is need to ensure that the business can be able to adapt to these changes (Ayala, and Manzano, 2014, p.128). However, the concept of resilience comes about in that the business needs to adapt but at the same time it needs to perform as expected by the entrepreneur. In addition to the above, resilience encompasses a set of qualities and habits which ensure that an entrepreneur can protect their business from the risk factors. Examples of these qualities that make up resilience include self-efficacy, innovativeness, and creativeness, the drive to achieve more, aspiration, flexibility, as well as the need to acquire more knowledge (Korber, and McNaughton, 2017). On a different note, it is also fair to mention that these qualities are many and it depends on the ability of an entrepreneur to employ whichever they feel is necessary for their business to continue to succeed in the face of any given challenge (Ayala, and Manzano, 2014, p.132). Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, refers to the ability to conceptualize an idea in the form a business and design the idea as well as implement it to ensure that the objectives of the developer of the business are achieved (Sun et al., 2011). Hence, entrepreneurship plays a huge role in economic development as the central idea behind the business idea is revenue collection which leads to economic empowerment. Entrepreneurs that are resilient have high success rates as compared to those that do not possess the skillset (Korber, and McNaughton, 2017). Moreover, entrepreneurs who are resilient have seen their business withstand the many challenges that their business experience in the ever-changing business environment and in so doing lead to increased economic development. Hence, the one defining the relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship is that resilience presents a set of qualities that enhance the success rate of a business (Sun et al., 2011). New business, mainly, is more susceptible to a set of risks and it is up to the entrepreneur to showcase high-level resilience if his/her company is to survive and overcome these challenges in the form of risks (Dewal and Kumar, 2017, p.35). The methodology and the approach taken by this study is based on the hypothesis that resilience has a massive influence on the success a business, thus enhancing the success of entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurship and resilience as was highlighted in the literature review of assessment task 2, relate in many ways. In fact, resilience is described as one of the most critical character traits that the best entrepreneurs possess. Therefore, resilience is essential when it comes to analyzing the skillset and the ability of an entrepreneur to perform whatever task they decide to pursue. Thus, there is need to identify whether resilience plays a huge role in the success of an entrepreneur. As a result, this is a research proposal that can be undertaken to ascertain whether resilience has a relationship with resilience. Most importantly, this study seeks to find out whether entrepreneurs with resilience as a defining habit are more successful in their many endeavors as compared to that do not possess this trait. All in all, the primary purpose of the study is to ascertain whether indeed there is a relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship and to what magnitude do these two aspects relate.
To carry out this study, the method of research involved a quantitative method of study in which participants will be selected to participate in the study. Additionally, a questionnaire survey research method will be the basis of the study that will help in measuring the level of resilience of participants (entrepreneurs). The participants are entrepreneurs from Spain meaning that the study will be based in Spain. In addition to the above, the tourism sector/industry is the one that will be considered by the study. In detail, the 2008 tourism industry is the one that is to be considered (Apostolopoulos et al., 2018, p.129). The year 2008 is the year that is to be focused in that the tourism industry in Spain is very vast hence the need to ensure that a distinct year is chosen to ensure that the relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship is well brought out. On a different note, the tourism industry will be chosen since it is a well-developed service industry and Spain is among the countries with the most developed tourism industry in the international platform. Secondly, the tourism industry is a pillar of economic development and stability in Spain (Bullough et al., 2014, p.475). Subjects that are to be considered by this research will involve results relating to the resilience levels of the participants being considered before follow-up data is to be collected after five years (Contreras et al., 2017, p.80) Moreover, there are several resilience factors which the research views as dimensions of resilience that help in predicting the success of entrepreneurs. The research also seeks to put into consideration the aspect of gender as gender influences resilience especially resourcefulness. Spain, as a country, has the highest number of female entrepreneurs and thus the country offers a good platform through which the influence of gender on entrepreneurship about resilience can be measured (Hallak et al., 2018, p.232). Lastly, the research design will also consider the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in implementing the methodology of the study.
The study will be based in Spain. As has been mentioned in the section above (research design), there are three main reasons which will lead the research to be based in Spain. One of the reasons as to why the research will be based on Spain and focus entirely on the tourism industry in the country is because Spain has the highest number of female entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Secondly, Spain’s economy relies heavily on the tourism industry, and lastly, the study will be based in Spain because Spain is a leader on the global platform as they have a well-developed tourism industry.
373 subjects will be considered for the research. The participants will be selected at random from the SABI database which is managed by Bureau Van Dyck. Additionally, the SABIN database is also managed by Grupo Informa S.A. On the same note; it is important to note that the database is important in that it contains financial information as well as economic information on companies that are in Spain which were founded since 1996. Hence, the entrepreneurs that are to be selected from the database will be viable for the research considering that they will be owners or rather founders of businesses that are registered and recognized by SABI. In so doing, the validity and credibility of the participants will not be limited or compromised. In the selection process of the 373 participants, they will be required to meet a set of requirements for them to participate. One of the requirements that are to be met by the participants is that they must be founders/owners of a business and the business must have been operational for not less than 42 months. Secondly, the participants must be owners/founders of companies that have more than ten employees but less than 50 employees.
To carry out the research, a questionnaire survey research method is to be used. A total of five interviewers are the one that are to spearhead the research process. Before carrying out the research, the interviewers will be reminded the objectives of the study which is to ascertain the relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship. The interviewers will go ahead and telephone all the 373 participants in the study (Bullough et al., 2014, p.474). To ensure that the process is effective and fruitful and to encourage higher response rate, the interviewers will make an approximate number of phone calls after dividing the participants among themselves (Baron et al., 2016, p.476). Note, the interviews will be carried out via phone calls and will be guided by a questionnaire that is captured in the appendix. The questions will be weaved such that they will measure the growth and progress rate as is explained by the founder/owner and compared to the information contained in the SABI database. The essence of the comparison is to have a clear and accurate information of the progress of the company of the last five years in which it has been in operation (Apostolopoulos et al.,2018). Findings are to be made based on the information that is achieved after data comparison has been carried out and measurement of the resilience of the participants has been carried out as well. Lastly, it is to be noted that the interviews will be guided by the profile of respondents in the appendix and the information that is collected is to be recorded in the form. To calculate the resilience of the participants, percentage of experience will be ascertained as well as the growth rate. Three main questions will be asked by the interviewer which are;
1 Self-efficacy, innovativeness and creativeness, the drive to achieve more, aspiration, and flexibility are the most common resilient traits, which one has influenced the growth and progress of your bu...