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Structure Of DNA And Drawings Of The Transcription Process (Term Paper Sample)


Describing the structure of dna and drawings of the transcription process.


The Structure and Function of DNA
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The Structure and Function of DNA
The Structure of the DNA Molecule
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a very long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is what transferred genetic characteristics in all life forms. DNA carries genetic instructions used for growth, development and the reproduction of living organisms (Albert, et al., 2014: p. 56). The instructions exist in every cell of the body and pass on from parents to their progenies. DNA consists of molecules that called nucleotides (Allison 2012, p. 212). Every nucleotide contains in itself a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogen base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases, and they include Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. The way in which the nitrogenous bases organize regarding their order then determines the instructions of the DNA, mostly the genetic code. The order of the bases forms the genes in organisms. Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA, translates the genetic information in DNA into proteins.
C- -G
A- -T
C- -G
T- -A
G- -C
G- -C

A- -T

 T- -A
G- -C
DNA Replication
DNA replication starts with the unzipping of the parent molecule. The process takes because the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs start to break forming two separate base strands. The strands once separated, retain the sequence of their bases, and this sequence determines how a complimentary set of bases insert when the strand synthesizes. The strands form a ‘Y’ shaped fork where each of the strands is oriented differently and as such replicated separately. Here one strand is oriented in 3’ to 5’ direction that makes this the leading strands and the other in the 5’ to 3’ direction that makes it the lagging strand (Allison 2007: p. 214). In the leading strand, an RNA primer binds to the ends of the DNA and then adds complementary nucleotides. In the lagging strand, many RNA primers bind to the ends of the lagging strands and then add the complementary nucleotides.
DNA replication.
C- -G
A- -T
C- -G
T- -A
G- -C
G- -C

A- -T
C- -G

G- -C G- -C
T- -A T- -A
A- -T A- -T
C- -G C- -G
DNA Transcription
Transcription is the process of copying DNA information into a new molecule of messenger RNA of mRNA. DNA acts as a storage point for genetic material. The mRNA copies this information for use as a benchmark. An enzyme called RNA polymerase, aided by transcription factors that are technically accessory proteins, achieves transcription. Transcription factors have the ability to bind specific DNA sequences like enhancers and promoter sequences to attract RNA polymerase. The transcription factors and the RNA polymerase form a compound called a transcription initiation complex and this complex initiates transcription (Watson 2013: p. 123). The RNA polymerase begins the synthesis of the mRNA by combining complementary bases with the original DNA strand. The mRNA molecule is then elongated. Once the strand synthesizes thoroughly, transcription is complete, and the newly formed mRNA copies of the gene serve as the outline for the synthesis of proteins during the translation.

DNA Activation
Activation is not technically a process but rather a reaction in which the correct amino acid is bonded covalently to the right transfer RNA or tRNA. Translation is a part of the conversion process that produces proteins by decoding the particular genetic information of a DNA that the messenger RNA carries. When the amino acids attach to their corresponding tRNA, a coupling reaction occurs which creates an ester bond that binds the amino acid to the tRNA. The ester bonds serve to preserve a significant amount of energy from the reaction which energy used in the translation process. The Amino acids have specific aminoacyl-t RNA syntheses (Griffiths 2008: p. 338. The component has one to four protein subunits (Griffiths 2008: p. 338). The tRNAs will then carry the activated amino acids into the ribosome which is composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins.

DNA Translation
Essentially translation is protein synthesis or biosynthesis that occurs in the cytoplasm and its end game is to make up the proteins. This process requires the use of tRNAs to attach specific amino acids and then use these amino acids to make the proteins. Translation begins at the transcription stage where DNA information copies into the mRNA and then the mRNA serves as a guide for the arrangement of the amino acids into a proper sequence. Proteins are technically amino acids joined in chains, and this chain is similar to the DNA because the DNA information in the mRNA acts as a guide in this process. However, the process itself occurs in the ribosome (Griffiths 2008: p. 337). The mRNA brings the DNA information while the tRNA brings the amino acids and about the sequence of the mRNA, the amino acids form a sequence to form the proteins.

Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is the manipulation of the genome of a living organism. The result is the production of improved organisms, or organisms that are better than previous or parent organisms. It is quite a controversial topic with many people having conflicting feelings towards it based on morality, faith, or beliefs. Such ideas oppose the practice and scholarship of genetic engineering or modifications. Genetically engineered organisms sell by the com...
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