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Discussion: Carbonate Acidizing in Petroleum Industry (Term Paper Sample)


I need a report and presentation about the subject discussing three different ways of carbonates acidizing in (Petroluem industry) the outline:
1- Introduction
2- Objective of each method
3-Methodology of each one
and a Powerpoint presentation that summrizes the whole report
for sources please use only SPE papers (APA reference ) and also please use figures reporet should be from 1500-2000 words
Please make sure That the sources are SPE papers ( and APA cited


Carbonate Acidizing in Petroleum Industry
Carbonate Acidizing in Petroleum Industry
As a reservoir for stimulation, the acidizing procedure is frequently deployed to upsurge adjoining-wellbore flow volume of petroleum during production and in insertion shafts (Dong et al. ,2017). Carbonate reservoirs mostly contain dolomite or carbonates. The method encompasses the introduction of acid, routinely hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the tank to liquefy the formation of rock and constituents that pile in the hole. The suspension eliminates any obstruction to flow and generates extremely semiconductive flow channels by efficiently permitting oil or gas o flow. The most significant parameter that guides channel development is the Damköhler number. The Damköhler number is the fraction of the frequency of the acid’s reactivity against the dry medium to the proportion of convective transference of the acid via a rock (Qi et al., 2018). Once the Damköhler number increases, for instance, in a low acid stream rate or high acid reaction rate, the acid stops permeating at profound rates into the rock, which subsequently causes an in-face suspension and little, if any permeation, and dissolution into the expansion. In low Damköhler numbers, for example, high acid stream rates or low rates of acid reaction, the acid liquefies the permeable medium moderately and homogeneously at the expense of sizable amounts of acid. On transitional Damköhler numbers, extremely conductive movement wormholes or channels develop, which can proficiently increase penetration into the development. This dispersal occurrence is characterizable through research laboratory central flood experimentations in where a researcher introduces hydrochloric acid into a porous carbonate material.
The accomplishment of acidizing carbonate reactions depends on the development of wormholes that infiltrate profoundly into the structure. The fast reaction rate between HCl and carbonate rocks typically constrains the treatment. The constrain results in a restricted penetration of live acid and unproductive stream volume of the acid-dissolution conduits. The frequency of bulk transfer of the acid to a rock’s exterior surface (diffusion-controlled) within standard reservoir settings limits the rapid reaction rates between HCl and carbonate rock. It is hence showing that the dispersion procedure can be guided by varying the frequency of convection or the proportion of acid dissemination. In a treatment situation where the acid introduction frequency is unimprovable as a result of pressure drop contemplations, the efficacy of the treatment can be governed depending on the Damköhler number by altering the degree of acid reaction in a reducing trend. However, it is essential to note that the response is based on mass transfer. Therefore, the success of the reduction is accomplished by lessening the acid diffusivity.
Moreover, such a control stricture offers the ultimate principle for the assessment of acid microemulsion systems. As well be used for examining the efficiency in the dissemination of the acid. Acidizing entails the pumping of acid into a sunk well or a geologic structure rich in either oil or gas. Acidization expands the well’s efficiency or injectivity. Generally, acid treatment includes acid washing, matrix acidizing, fracture acidizing.
The Objective of Acidizing
Acid Cleaning
Mainly, acid washing guarantees the removal of the plug from both the wellbore and the tubular. At this phase, treatment of the formation is unnecessary. Acid washing uses hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixtures to remove scales that may include calcium carbonate, corrosion, among other remains limiting the stream in the channel.
Formation treatments involve both matrix and fracture acidizing:
Fracture Acidizing
Fracture acidizing is used to propel the acid treatment beyond the cracking pressure of the reservoir rock, which generates inordinate, open conduits from the well infiltrating the structure. Usually, fracture acid stimulation is performed on carbonate reservoirs that contain lower penetrability than sandstone reservoirs. Usefully, it stimulates intact formations, as well as remove formation impairment to generate conductive channels to allow migration of oil or gas within the fracture.
However, fracture acid stimulation is problematic since the acid is often entirely utilized near the wellbore, whereby it becomes unavailable or limited for outlining the fracture surfaces way from the wellbore. Additionally, the acid stimulation liquid adopts the paths that offer minimal resistance, which leads to the occurrence of long-branched passages that drain away from the fissure boundary, known as wormholes. This diversion causes leakages of injected fracturing fluid into the wormholes instead of broadening the anticipated fracture (Cheng et al.,2017).
Matrix Acidizing
In the carbonate matrix, the matrix acid stimulation serves the purpose of dissolving channels that generate and lead to the development of wormholes in the near-wellbore region, in turn, successfully allowing the flow as far as conceivable into the formation. Carbonate matrix acid stimulation is necessary for the treatment of sandstones cemented with carbonate and the destruction of acid-dissoluble formation categories like calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scales, sulfide scales, and lost flow materials, among others.
Therefore, essentially, the resolve of matrix or fracture acidizing is to advance the productivity of an oil well or gas well by dissolving substances in the productive formation that limit the streaming of oil or gas. Also, they can be used to enhance the present flow paths or create new ones that lead to the wellbore.
Formation type, that is, whether carbonate, sandstone, or shale, and formation penetrability are the vital factors considered during the treatment and design process of the acid job.
Acid washing involves the use of acid to liquefy scales and precipitates inside the wellbore by affecting acid across the encrusted skin (Wei et al., 2017). The acid used in acid washing infrequently reaches the formation.
Acid fracturing is performed similarly with hydraulic fracturing. The only substantial variance is the formations that contain significant solubility to acid. Also, it does not necessitate the use of proppant during the treatment process. Alternatively, during the development of the fracture, acid etches the surface of the fracture. The sections that are etched most intensely supply the rupture with the permeability and conductivity desired to expand the stream to the wellbore. Acid fracturing is restricted to the acidizing of carbonates. 
Matrix acidizing of carbonate formations comprises broadening the developed pores by dissolving fragments of the matrix (Akanni et al., 2016). Matrix acidizing is a process used to remove damaged parts. Therefore, in carbonates, the volume of acid essential to offer reservoir stimulation by liquefying formation and broadening the wellbore can readily be established as excessive. In carbonates, the acidizing matrix method is usually for overcoming near-wellbore damage, for instance, the ones triggered in the perforating process. The technique can also be deployed in bypassing plugged permeability caused by tedious or conclusion processes (Safari et al. 2017). Furthermore, matrix stimulation is not significantly engaged in carbonates owing to materials formed not being susceptible to formation damage. 
 To stimulate a carbonate reservoir, reactive substances, usually hydrochloric acid (HCl), are introduced into an absorbent media, which improves absorbency while also enhancing the efficiency of the hydrocarbon (Dong et al., 2017). The procedure culminates in exceedingly conductive stream conduits or wormholes. For stimulation to occur, reactive solutions must enter the formation. Nonetheless, the high reactivity of HCl with the limestone rock usually restricts the rate at which the acid penetrates. The result of this reaction depends on extensive penetration under specific reservoir situations. The rate of acid diffusion and absorption determines how successful and efficient the treatments will be. The incorporation of microemulsions lased with HCl in the diffusion stage help to reduce effective diffusivity, which increases the rate and level of stimulation.
Carbonate acidizing treatments fall into two distinct categories: matrix stimulation and fracture stimulation. In matrix acidizing, the addition of the acid into the permeable rock matrix creates acid- distribution channels, which are christened wormholes. In fracture

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