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Integrating Solar Energy into the EV Charging Station (Term Paper Sample)


Dear Writer,
please write a technical report
The idea is to integrate the solar energy in the EV charging station along with the power grid. In the report I will discuss the idea of designing a hybrid charging station which uses the PV cells as a main source, and still uses the regular power outlet or grid in cases the PV cells are not able to provide enough power like a simple example just to give an idea in the winter (long night less sun exposure ) or other conditions. Also, the other way around the PV cells when it's in its peaks it can feed power to the grid or store energy in an energy storage system to provide a backup if the grid is in low volt.
2 hours paid to create tables and figures, must be referenced if taken from somewhere.
150 words abstract
The ENGR411 report should consists of the following sections:
1. Cover page
2. Abstract
3. Table of contents
4. List of tables
5. List of figures
6. List of symbols
7. List of Acronyms
8. Introduction
9. Motivations and objectives
10. Literature survey
11. Bibliography


Report On
Hybrid Charging Station
Submitted to:
Title Institution:
The aim of the research is to identify literature that is linked to the use of photovoltaic (PV) cells linked to the energy grid for the electric vehicle (EV) charging station. From the research, the major themes that are associated with the hybrid charging infrastructure are cost benefits of the system reliability, cost-benefit, policy implications, reliability, and challenges associated with a hybrid charging station. Hence, it is evident that the hybrid charging station for EVs has social and economic benefits, but there are challenges associated with a voltage unbalance, the increased upfront cost of developing the infrastructure, and the danger of cyber-attacks. The key recommendations associated with the research are to ensure that future research is linked to the Canadian attributes because most of the research is foreign and to find ways to integrate other renewable energy sources. In addition, the research should be read by industry practitioners and legislators, with the latter providing an excellent avenue for improving the situation through supporting policies.
Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) cells, electric vehicle (EV), charging station, system reliability, cost-benefit and policy implications.
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc104138405 \h 1List of Figures PAGEREF _Toc104138406 \h 3List of Acronyms PAGEREF _Toc104138407 \h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc104138408 \h 4Motivations and Objective PAGEREF _Toc104138409 \h 5Literature Survey PAGEREF _Toc104138410 \h 6Cost Benefit of integrating Solar Energy in The EV Charging Station PAGEREF _Toc104138411 \h 6Policy Implications Associated with Integrating Solar Energy PAGEREF _Toc104138412 \h 8Reliability of a Hybrid System PAGEREF _Toc104138413 \h 9Challenges Associated with Hybrid Charging Station PAGEREF _Toc104138414 \h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc104138415 \h 11Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc104138416 \h 12Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc104138417 \h 13
List of Figures
Table 1 The optimization results of scenario 3 [1]
Table 2 shows the optimal power of BESS and grid [1]
List of Acronyms
All-Electric Range (AER)
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)
Demand Response (DR)
Denial-Of-Service (Dos)
Electric Vehicle (EV)
Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS)
Genetic Algorithm (GA)
Internal Combustion Engines (ICE)
Net Present Value (NPV)
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
Photovoltaic (PV)
Photovoltaic-Battery Energy Storage-Electric Vehicle Charging Station (PBES)
Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV)
Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
Smart Meters (Sms)
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Vehicle To Cloud (V2C)
Voltage Unbalance (VU)
Hybrid Charging Station
The topic researched relates to the integration of solar energy in the electric vehicle (EV) charging station along with the power grid. Hence, the intention is to design a hybrid charging station that utilizes photovoltaic (PV) cells as the main source and also utilizes the grid or outlets in the situations the PV cells cannot offer enough power, for instance, during the winter when there are long nights and less sunlight exposure or when there is the high duration of cloud cover. The hybrid system can also benefit from when the PV cells' energy is at its peak and is fed into the grid or stored energy in batteries to offer backup when the grid is at low volt. The proposed hybrid system consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS), an energy management system, a PV, and an end-users EV [1]. A grid is also part of a grid-connected mode, with the energy management system controlling the entire hybrid charging system whose function is to control, gather, and distribute information from energy storage, load, as well as generation [1].
The first EVs were manufactured in 1820, but they faced power limitations that prevented their expansion into society until the twentieth century after the climate change and global warming awareness associated because of carbon emissions and petroleum-based transportation fears revived developments and interests in EVs [2]. Even though there have been developments in EV technology, there are numerous challenges that are faced by cars. Some of the factors are attributed to the availability of charging stations, charging time, battery life, safety, and cost of charging [2]. When it comes to charging, the EV can need charging in situations where there is still some charge in the battery, and such occurrences put the EV users in dilemmas as the margin of coping with any unexpected travel or reroute is restricted compared to cars driven using internal combustion engines (ICE).
Hence, there is a need for charging stations that can meet the demand for EVs in the market. According to Domínguez-Navarro et al., in the future, the quantity of EVs is projected to rise exponentially because of the environmental concerns about the use of oil [2]. Hence, there is a need to coordinate initiatives to decrease urban greenhouse emissions and pollution. However, the growth of EV use is restricted by the slow installation of charging stations because the EV users can charge their cars at home, but the period used is lengthy, and to enhance the EV usage, it is vital to construct a fast-charging infrastructure where the EV battery is rechargeable in lesser time [2]. However, the main challenge associated with the use of fast charging is that it has a high demand on the grid, and there is a need to integrate renewable energy sources and storage systems in these charging stations. For instance, currently, in Ontario, Canada, the grid can only charge about 500,000 EVs at no extra infrastructure cost [4]. However, with the anticipated use of EVs, there will be an extra cost that will be experienced by the grid. Several benefits have been associated with the integration of an EV–PV charger. These benefits include decreased demand for energy on the grid because EV charging because the energy is generated locally in a renewable way using solar panels; there is also where the EV battery can be used as an energy storage system for the PV lowering the negative effect of large-scale integration of PV in the delivery network, and the extended parking time for EVs allows the integration of Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system where the car can be used as a the smart grid’s controllable spinning reserve [5].
According to the Government of Canada, the emergence of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) started in British Columbia (BC) and other places around 2011 and presents specific challenges and opportunities that contribute to the society in addressing the environmental impact. The key challenge associated with PEVs is the burden that it brings to the grid at peak power. Therefore, the integration of a hybrid charging station is economically beneficial because it can be used to purchase and sell energy with the main grid networks. Hence, surplus energy is sent to the grid when experiencing peak hours to earn profits, and energy is received from the network when there are value hours so as to get a lower electricity rate [1]. The health and safety benefits associated with the hybrid system are linked to the environmental issues associated with emissions and the use of fossil fuels, where the integration of a charging station that uses a renewable source of energy facilitates the growth of the EV market.
In the present research, the focus is on the literature and studies that have been conducted on the use of a hybrid charging station for EVs. The research involved the industry scholars and practitioners that have been involved in the topic and was not limited to any geographic area. A review of the literature methodology was adopted for the research. A review of literature entails defining databases, and searching books, studies, articles, and official documents associated with the topic. The process entails the use of keywords while searching electronic databases and the use of standardized syntax rules [7]. Another strategy that was employed while conducting the research was reviewing the reference list of the articles that matched the topic being researched, and they led to other relevant publications that were used in the literature survey. An exclusion criterion was also employed to ensure that only relevant and high-quality research was the one that was shortlisted for the final report. The inclusion criteria include only articles published in the last two decades, those in English, ones that are related to the topic, and also the publications that met the needed quality. After shortlisting the final publications, the key themes were identified and critically analyzed. The research entailed the charging of EVs and the different models that are associated with the charging stations. The four themes that were constant in a majority of research related to the use of EV-PV hybrid systems were cost-benefit, policy issues, reliability, and challenges linked with the infrastructure.
Motivations and Objective
The first motivation to conduct the research is the environmental concern regarding climate change and global warming. Any technology that can mitigate environmental issues is crucial in ensuring the sustainability of resources for future generations. The hybrid charging system is an important technology that can be integrated on a large scale and en...

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