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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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Thesis
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Knowledge And Attitudes Of Secondary School Students Towards Reproductive Health In Nandi Hills Constituency (Thesis Sample)

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AN UNDERGRADUATE REPORT ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN NANDI HILLS CONSTITUENCY

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Content:

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN NANDI HILLS CONSTITUENCY
BY
VINCENT KIPKIRUI NG’ETICH
REG NO: P32S/9990/2009
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF KENYATTA UNIVERSITY
JANUARY, 2013
DECLARATION
This research proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university.
Signature ___________________________Date ______________________________
VINCENT KIPKIRUI NG’ETICH
REG NO: P32S/9990/2009
SUPERVISOR
This research proposal has been presented to me for assessment as a university supervisor
Signature ___________________________Date ______________________________
Dr. Francis O. Onsongo
Lecturer,
Kenyatta University
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285244" DECLARATION  PAGEREF _Toc355285244 \h ii
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285245" TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGEREF _Toc355285245 \h iii
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285246" LIST OF ACRONYMS  PAGEREF _Toc355285246 \h v
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285247" CHAPTER ONE  PAGEREF _Toc355285247 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285248" INTRODUCTION  PAGEREF _Toc355285248 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285249" 1.1 Background information  PAGEREF _Toc355285249 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285250" 1.2 Problem statement  PAGEREF _Toc355285250 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285251" Justification of the study  PAGEREF _Toc355285251 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285252" 1.4 Research objectives  PAGEREF _Toc355285252 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285253" 1.4.1 Broad objectives  PAGEREF _Toc355285253 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285254" 1.4.2 Specific objectives  PAGEREF _Toc355285254 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285255" 1.4.3 Research Questions  PAGEREF _Toc355285255 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285256" CHAPTER TWO  PAGEREF _Toc355285256 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285257" LITERATURE REVIEW  PAGEREF _Toc355285257 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285258" CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  PAGEREF _Toc355285258 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285259" CHAPTER THREE  PAGEREF _Toc355285259 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285260" RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  PAGEREF _Toc355285260 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285261" 3.1 Study design  PAGEREF _Toc355285261 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285262" 3.2 study area  PAGEREF _Toc355285262 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285263" 3.3 Study population  PAGEREF _Toc355285263 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285264" 3.4 Sampling techniques  PAGEREF _Toc355285264 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285265" 3.4.1 Sampling design  PAGEREF _Toc355285265 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285266" 3.4.2 Sample size determination  PAGEREF _Toc355285266 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285267" 3.5 Ethical considerations  PAGEREF _Toc355285267 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285268" 3.6 Data Collection methods  PAGEREF _Toc355285268 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285269" 3.7 Inclusion and exclusion criteria  PAGEREF _Toc355285269 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285270" 3.7.1 Inclusion criteria  PAGEREF _Toc355285270 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285271" 3.7.2 Exclusion criteria  PAGEREF _Toc355285271 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285272" REFERENCES  PAGEREF _Toc355285272 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285273" APPENDIX 1: WORK PLAN  PAGEREF _Toc355285273 \h 16
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285274" APPENDIX 2: STUDY BUDGET  PAGEREF _Toc355285274 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285275" APPENDIX 3: QUESTIONNAIRE  PAGEREF _Toc355285275 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc355285276" APPENDIX 4: MAP OF NANDI HILLS  PAGEREF _Toc355285276 \h 23

LIST OF ACRONYMS
AIDS:         Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  
CDC: Center for Disease and Control
HIV:         Human immunodeficiency virus
ICASA: Independent Communications Authority of South Africa
IEC: Information Education and Communication
MDG: Millennium Development Goals
MOH:           Ministry Of Health                                                                                               
NCPFP: Northern Counties Photographic Federation
NDHS: National Demographic Health Surveys
SPPR: State of the Philippine Population Report
SPSS: Statistical package for social sciences
STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
STIs: Sexually Transmitted Infections
UNAIDS: United Nation Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
WHO:         World Health Organization
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information
Modernization and social transformations are occurring rapidly in the Kenyan society. Growing expansion of communication and transportation networks, urbanization and in-migration of population to urban areas is creating a different socio-cultural environment, which is conducive to more social interactions between young girls and boys (Regmi et al, 2008).
Rising age at marriage has now opened a window of opportunity for pre-marital and unsafe sexual activity among young people which creates risks of unwanted pregnancy, STIs/HIV and AIDS. Several socio-economic, demographic and cultural factors have been identified as encouraging factors for risk taking behaviors among young people. Improving access to youth friendly services, implementing peer education programmes for school going adolescents, developing effective Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials and curricula have been highly suggested to improve the existing young people's sexual and reproductive health status (Dido, 2007).
Information is critical to the healthy development of a person right from infancy and childhood, to adolescence and the reproductive years, to the post reproductive period. In fact, to a large extent the quality of life of women depends on the quality of information at their disposal and the purpose to which it is used. Every child, therefore, should have the right to information which will enable them to assess the alternatives and make an informed decision (Kenneth and Stella, 2007).
Literature on adolescent reproductive health information needs is very sparse. This is because adolescents’ access to reproductive health information remains a contentious issue for parents, government and many religious groups. Yet, young people have a special need for information on sexual and reproductive health in order to avoid becoming victims of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancies.
Reproductive health knowledge is described as knowledge about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study therefore will be conducted to explore knowledge and assess the attitude of secondary school students towards reproductive health in Nandi Hills Constituency.
1.2 Problem statement
Many adolescents die prematurely every year, an estimated 1.7 million young men and women between ages of 10 and 19 lose their lives to accidents, violence, pregnancy related complications and other illnesses that are either preventable or treatable (Blum et al, 1998). As a result, adolescent reproductive health is an increasingly important component of global health. Sexual and reproductive health of young people has become a major health problem in recent decades. Recent and rapidly increasing Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) rates show an urgent need for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and HIV prevention interventions in Kenya. Low familiarity of the student population with family planning methods and HIV and AIDS transmission, which, combined with minimal contraceptive use, pose them at high risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexual infections transmission. Adolescents are generally thought to be healthier than other age groups having survived many of the diseases of early childhood and being decades away from the diseases associated with aging (WHO, 1998). However, some adolescents are affected by diseases while others die prematurely. A major threat to the health of the adolescents stems primarily from their sexual behavior which is partly influenced by lack of knowledge of reproductive health issues.
Justification of the study
Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in Kenya.
Few African countries have comprehensive policies that deal with issues related to adolescent health and fertility. Tra...
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