3 pages/≈825 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Describe Relationship Between Obesity And Hypertension (Annotated Bibliography Sample)
Write one page of annotated bibliography of a topic related journal and a two page essay about how obesity relate to hypertensionsource..
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND HYPERTENSION
DeMarco, V. G., Aroor, A. R., & Sowers, J. R. (2014). The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(6), 364-376. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.44
The authors use epidemiological data to analyze global obesity and high blood pressure. They find that obesity is as a result of mainly a combination of an increase in food intake and reduction of physical exercises. They use this global data on obesity to test their hypothesis that hypertension results from obesity. Obesity is becoming a burden in the world because about one billion people are overweight or obese. Countries like the USA have 33% of the population obese. Date obtained from Framingham Heart Study shows the relationship between hypertension and obesity. Analysis of data from the study supports their hypothesis. The number of cases of hypertension increases with increasing BMI in both men and women. The data indicates that in every increment of 5% percent of weight, there is a 20 to 30% increased risk of getting hypertension. Researchers also studied the mechanisms or the pathophysiology of increased hypertension among the obese. They link metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity to upper body obesity. Further studies in the 1980s revealed that an increase in the risk of developing hypertension is attributed to increasing waist-to-hip ratio. These complications which include hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance plus the abdominal obesity are the key causes of cardiorenal and metabolic syndromes. Reports from recent clinical trials suggest that a reduction of weight by 10% is an important non-pharmacological therapy of reducing high blood pressure. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology of hypertension in obesity and relationship among many factors that contribute to the condition including dysfunctional immunity. They also highlight the treatment of hypertension due to obesity in patients.
From investigation made obesity is a preventable disease resulting from overweight. It is defined as excess body weight compared to height. From the data obtained from the United States National Library of Medicine, by 2030, about 20% will be suffering from obesity and USA alone will have an obesity prevalence of 85% (Bagchi & Preuss, 2013). While the growth rate in most countries seems to have become zero, morbid obesity stills continue to increase. Obesity is a risk of hypertension. The criteria used for diagnosing obesity is the body mass index (BMI). A BMI of at least 30 is classified as obesity. Another criterion uses waist circumference measurements to find out abdominal obesity. A circumference of at least 94 cm is considered as abdominal adiposity in European men and at least 80cm is considered as abdominal adiposity in European women. The fat in the viscera is thought to be associated with metabolic disturbances predisposing the victims to cardiovascular conditions such as high blood pressure (Bakris & Sorrentino).
In children, obesity is classified differently from adults since the composition of the body changes as the child grows. This also varies between boys and girls. The most recent method of classification of obesity and overweight in children is known as the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. These guidelines show references from birth to early adulthood. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA uses the CDC growth references currently to highlight sex and age-specific BMI percentiles. At least 85th percentile and 95th percentile is defined as overweight for age and sex respectively, while 95th percentile represent obesity in children.
Risk factors for obesity include excess energy intake, reduced physical exercise, excess or little sleep, stress, some drugs like steroids, genetics, some certain diseases such as Cushing’s disease. Environmental issues like viruses and living in desert regions poses a risk of obesity also. Among the many consequences of obesity in the body is a risk of developing hypertension. Research shows that obesity is associated with vasodilation, increased blood flow and hypertension (In Bray & In Bouchard, 2014). Glomerular filtration, cardiac output, and sodium retention increases. All these lead to hypertension. At the same time, hormone leptin, produced mainly by abdominal fat t cause weight loss and reduce satiety causes hypertension by activating the sympathetic system (Zhou & University of Ottawa, 2011). During this process, renal system is activated to alter the...
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