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3 pages/≈825 words
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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Prostate Cancer Screening: PSA-Based Testing (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


the task was about prostate cancer and how it can be treated, its effects and prevention as well.


Prostate Cancer Screening: PSA-Based Testing
Prostate Cancer Screening: PSA-Based Testing
Grady, D. (2015). Early prostate cancer cases are falling along with screening. New York Times.
Grady takes note of the declining trend in the number of patients being diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Surprisingly, though, is the fact that this statistics does not imply that the number of people being infected with this sickness is declining, but that there has been a sharp drop in the number being taken in for screening. The report by the United States Preventive Service Task Force has had a severe impact on the efforts being taken to curb the dire effects of prostate cancer. Asking people to avoid routine check-ups, to prevent over-diagnosis, could actually be leading to a case whereby there is no diagnosis at all. Though this recommendation is believed to have been well-informed, blatantly urging people to avoid screening is not, but instead, ‘smart screening’ is encouraged to avoid the negative consequences associated with PSA-tests.
Harris, G. (2011). A US panel says no to prostate screening for healthy men. New York Times, 6.
Harris reiterates the recommendation by a U.S based panel, USPSTF, that men should avoid routine PSA tests for prostate cancer screening. The author argues that even though some medics still vouch for the life-saving benefits of PSA-testing, its harms have been determined to outweigh its benefits and should be given serious thoughts before being undertaken. He backs his claims by noting observations from various caregivers and researchers in this field.
Mayo Clinic, (n.d.). Prostate cancer screening: Should one get a PSA test? Diseases and Conditions.
This post by a Mayo Clinic staff gives tips to both physicians and patients on when to carry out a PSA test based on a number of factors. These critical risk factors include age, race, family history and diet. For some unknown reasons, black men have been found to be more prone to these infections than their fellow whites and are, therefore, advised to undertake regular check-ups than their white counterparts. Prostate cancer has also been listed as an old-age disease and should only be minded so much in the older ages. High-fat, obesity and a family history of similar infection may also predispose one to this type of cancer.
Moyer, V. A. (2012). Screening for prostate cancer: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(2), 120-134.
This article details the recommendation by the U.S Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) presented on its behalf by Dr. Moyer. Men without symptoms are advised against undergoing regular prostate-specific antigen, otherwise known as PSA, blood tests meant to screen for prostate cancer. This report comes at a time when prostate cancer is being determined to be the leading type of cancer infection in men after skin cancer. The panel is an autonomous body of medical experts, authorized by the Congress to test and offer recommendations about preventive services for patients in the country.
The recommendation was based on a harm-benefit analysis using independent randomized clinical trials on screening and treatment. The team of experts established that based on current evidence, the potential harms posed by PSA screening massively outweighs their expected benefits and should not be used. The task force has however recognized that some patients will continue requesting this screening method and some doctors too, will continue offering it. They have encouraged such parties to always make enlightened decisions based on the conditions at hand and through an understanding of what is at stake
Park, A. (2015). Fewer men are getting prostate cancer blood tests, and that may not be a good thing. Time Magazine.
Alice Parker published this as a response paper to the 2012’s recommendation article by the U.S Preventive Service Task Force. This paper illustrates how the report has had effects on the number of men presently visiting clinics for prostate cancer check-ups, and doctors’ opinio...
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