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3 pages/≈1650 words
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography
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Renal Failure Impact on the Lungs: Annotated Bibliography (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


Annotated Bibliography I. Definition A. Annotated Bibliography - a collection of summaries of articles to a related topic. II. Instructions A. Find 4 articles from medical journals and write a summary for each (minimum 300 words each summary). When selecting articles keep in mind that next semester you will be asked to use these same articles to complete a research paper on an aspect of your topic. B. Article must not be older than 3 years C. Article must be from a medical journal (peer reviewed) The Library has several health related databases from which to research information. III. An Effective Abstract * A. Uses one or more well developed paragraphs, which are unified, coherent, concise and able to stand alone. B. Uses an introduction – body – conclusion in which parts of the report were discussed in order. C. Strictly follows the chronology of the report D. Provides logical connections between the materials included. E. Adds no new information, but summarizes your report. F. Should be no longer than 250 words. IV. Requirements (APA 6th Edition) A. Title Page – manuscript header w/page #; running header; topic title, student name, institution B. Abstract 1. Length – 100-250 words must succinctly represent the bibliography. 2. Single Spacing 3. Free of spelling, grammar, and structure errors. C. 4 articles summarized 1. Each article must directly pertain to the topic. 2. Each article must be summarized with a minimum requirement of 300 words and contain a final paragraph that relates to why you felt it is important to know this information and what you learned from the article. {Impact statement should be written in third person and is NOT included in the 300 word count for the summary as it is your take on the article} 3. Full reference citation should begin each summary. (double spaced) 4. Articles should be listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. 5. Citations used must follow APA format 6th Edition. 6. Summaries should be single spaced. 7. Paper must be free of format, spelling, grammar, & structure errors. 8. Paper must be coherent and have concise wording. 9. Appendix A – student will determine a concise, specific question that will be the topic for the next semester’s research paper. It must be derived from the general topic that the annotated bibliography covered. The question must be very specific and be able to be answered and supported using the articles reviewed. The appendix should pose the question and give supporting evidence from the articles reviewed in the bibliography. Length should be no more than 300 words. Written in third person tense. D. Plagiarism 1. Direct quotes from sources should never be used without giving the author credit. When you directly quote a source, you are taking someone else’s work and using it in your paper without giving them credit. This is considered stealing and people have been sued for this. When in doubt, cite the author. You must also give the author credit when using his ideas or findings. Anyone in direct violation of plagiarism will receive a grade of zero. E. Minimum Quality Standards 1. Paper must be computer generated from Microsoft Word. 2. Plan ahead so that if you do not have a computer, you will have ample time to use the resources that are available to you. (i.e. Computer Lab, Library) 3. Required font size: 12 4. Font style: Times New Roman or Arial or Calibri **Note that Blackboard limits the size of your submissions to 2 MB so be cognizant of this limitation. The assignment must be submitted as ONE document with either .doc or .docx format only. a. Pages must be in the following order (a) Title Page (b) Abstract (c) Bibliographies (d) Appendix F. References - if you found your journals electronically you must provide an active hyperlink to that source. If you are unable to then print the article and submit it to the instructor's mailbox upon electronic submission of the finished paper. Also, the peer reviewed draft must be submitted in addition to the draft tutored by the tutoring center.

[Renal Failure Impact on the Lungs: Annotated Bibliography
Patients that have an acute or chronic renal failure may develop several complications, for example, oedema, infection, or pleurisy. Presently, there is no single established standard or guideline for the diagnosis and classification of acute renal failure, and this creates problems in regards to the diagnostic procedures and treatment guidelines. Moreover, the current treatment approaches are associated with the development of serious comorbidities that increase the incidence of morbidity and mortality in different groups of patients. The most common complications involved in renal failure treatment such a hemodialysis and transplant are often associated with certain outcomes that relate to the functioning of the lungs. This paper provides an annotated bibliography of the most recent and relevant articles that relate to renal failure and its impact on the lungs. It first provides an evaluation of the pulmonary functioning among patients with renal failure and have undergone a transplant procedure or under hemodialysis for maintenance purposes to establish the possible outcomes in pulmonary functioning due to such procedures. Moreover, it highlights the treatment guidelines that can be applied in a case where renal failure is associated with problems of the lungs. Furthermore, it reveals the lung complications that may arise due to treatment procedures of renal disease that is vital in identifying the patients that are highly susceptible to such complications. Finally, bibliography provides an article summary of the effects of lung functioning complications attributed to renal failure on the quality of life of both adults and children with the condition.
Annotated Bibliography
Abdallaa, M. E., AbdElgawad, M., & Alnahal, A. (2013). Evaluation of pulmonary function in renal transplant recipients and chronic renal failure patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 62, 145–150. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcdt.2013.04.012. /science/article/pii/S0422763813000721.
This article provides an evaluation of pulmonary function among patients having chronic renal failure that are under hemodialysis and those undergoing a kidney transplant. This is because the effects of treatment through hemodialysis and kidney transplantation on pulmonary functioning have not been clearly understood. Sixty subjects were classified into three distinct groups. These are the Hemodialysis Group (HDG) that comprised of patients (20) having end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and were had at least six months of regular hemodialysis and were stable clinically. In addition, there was the transplant grouped that comprised of patients (20) that had a kidney transplant six months prior to the study and were stable. Finally, twenty patients who were healthy subjects formed the Control Group (CG). All the study participants had to undertake pulmonary tests.
The results of the study indicated significant variations between the HDG, TG and CG. This was in regards to the predicted percentage of FVC, FEV, FEF (25-75%), PEFR, and MVV. there were also significant variations in regards to the predicted percentage of RV, TLC, RV/TLC. The predicted FVC% and FEV1% were within the normal ranges in all the groups, however, the spirometric parameters had significant reductions among the HDG compared to the TG and CG groups with a greater reduction TG compared to the CG group. Among the HDG the predicted FEF 25-75% was below normal, but was normal in CG and TG groups. The predicted percentage of RV and TLC also increased in the HDG group compared to the other groups. Differences also existed in the groups in relation to DLco% and also the spirometric tests.
This article is vital as it indicates the possible negative consequences the treatment approaches used in patients with CRF has on the lungs. It highlights the changes that occur in lung functioning and, therefore, essential when planning for renal failure care.
McMurray, J. J., Adamopoulos, S., Anker, S. D., Auricchio, A., Bohm, M., Dickstein, K., et al. (2012). ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012. European Heart Journal, 33, 1787–1847. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs104. /guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/guidelinesdocuments/guidelines-acute%20and%20chronic-hf-ft.pdf.
This article provides practical guidelines that are based on evidence that are used for diagnosing and treating heart failure. The guidelines are used for evaluating the available evidence for treatment during the writing process on a certain issue of interest and aims at assisting the physician and other caregivers in determining the best approach for managing a patient with a certain condition while considering the outcome and the risk benefit-ratio for that strategy. These guidelines are, however, not used as substitutes for the existing textbooks and knowledge but are complementary guidelines, and they cover the curriculum topics of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
These guidelines and recommendations assist the physician in making clinical practice decisions. This journal highlights several significant changes in the treatment guidelines that have been introduced and differs from the 2008 guidelines. The introduced changes relate to expanding the use of mineral corticoid receptor agonists in treatment and new indications for an inhibitor of the sinus nodes ivabradine. In addition, there is current information regarding revascularization of coronary in heart failure, it recognizes the utilization of ventricular assist devices and the use of transcatheter valve interventions. The article also provides a new format and structure for the treatment guidelines with therapeutic recommendations stating the effects of treatment that is supported by the class and recommendation level that are tabulated. The article provides detailed summaries of the most important evidence that support recommended treatments. Moreover, the article provides guidance that is practical and relates to the use of drugs that modify diseases and diuretics including relevant guidelines, consensus statements and position statements.
Renal failure is associated with several comorbidities; therefore, this guideline is effective in highlighting the treatment approaches for conditions associated with renal failure. While the article contains elements that relate to the cardiac system, it also includes guidelines for lung conditions associated with the same hence effective as an interventional guideline.
Pencheva, V., Petrova, D., Genov, D., & Georgiev, O. (2014). Pulmonary complications as a cause of death after renal transplantation. Open Journal of Internal Medicine, 4, 41-46.
This article provides an analysis of the risk factors of death due to the occurrence of pulmonary complications among patients who have had a kidney transplant. The researchers used two hundred and sixty-seven participants that comprised of patients that had undergone through a renal transplantation procedure. The study employed a prospective approach where these participants were constantly followed-up following discharge and monitored for the development of any pulmonary complications and their outcomes. This follow-up was done for seven years with several invasive and noninvasive tests for diagnosis being applied where the participant was suspected to have developed a lung disease.
The findings indicated that the main risk factors that were associated with the development of pulmonary complications in renal disease were the development of lung disease during the first six months post-operation (P < 0.05). In addition, the development of regimens that are immunosuppressive, for example, mycophenolate mofetil (HR: 3.216; cl: 1.067 – 5.577; P = 0.011). There are those factors that are linked with a decreased rate of the fatal outcomes, for example, a positive serology test of the individual’s cytomegalovirus preoperatively (P = 0.034) and the use of azathioprine (HR: 0.720’ 95% CL: 0.526 – 0.986: P = 0.034). These results indicate that there are certain risk factors that are associated with renal transplantation in renal failure. Therefore, they help in identifying those individuals that are at an increased risk of developing pulmonary complications hence reduce the incidences of mortality and morbidity after renal transplantation.
Kidney transplantation and its associated procedures are the most popular surgeries for organ transplantation with pulmonary complications being vital in determining the condition’s prognosis after the transplant. Complications often develop, and these can be diagnosed and treated. Lung disease in this case is the highest cause of death and disability for such patients and this study is vital in monitoring and identifying the patients at risk of developing complications after transplant.
Teixeira, C. G., Duarte, M. d., Prado, C. M., de Albuquerque, E. C., & Andrade, L. B. (2014). Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity. J Pediatr, 178-185.
This article provides an evaluation of the effect Chronic Kidney Disease has on the quality of life. The impact is based on the perspective of both the children and parents, the strength of the respiratory muscles, the functioning of the lungs, and the functional capacity among children and adolescents. The researchers here conducted a study of children that were aged between 8 and 17 years in a cross-sectional manner. The study excluded children unable to take the test and applied the quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, the 6-minute walking test, tes...
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