Educational Inequality Faced by Migrant Children in China and the Alternatives to Reduce It (Coursework Sample)
Incorporating the material from your individual research on issue diagnosis, criteria, and policy options/alternatives/proposed decisions, and team research and discussions, you will submit an individual policy analysis memo. The policy memo should include: definition of the issue, 3-4 specific options/alternatives/proposed decisions, specific and defined criteria, analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the probable results of each option/alternative/proposed decision using the criteria, tradeoffs among the options/alternatives/proposed decisions, and recommendation of the best option/alternative/proposed decision given the criteria and tradeoffs analysis.source..
Educational Inequality Faced By Migrant Children in China
To: Ministry of educational
From: The Team
Subject: Policy alternative to increase migrant children's access to higher education in Shanghai
Migrant children face social discrimination and exclusion to access higher education in Shanghai due to the Hukou system (Fu & Ren, 2010). To identify the best alternative to address this problem, the political feasibility and evaluative criteria will be used. Specifically, four alternatives will be analyzed including granting a temporary Shanghai Hukou by developing a Merit-based evaluation program, lowering the tuition by subsidizing private schools, establishing new migrant schools, and status quo or leving the situation continue as it is. After comparing the strengths, and tradeoffs of each alternative, this memo finds that establishing a new migrant schools program is the best suited alternative to reduce the educational inequality faced by migrant children in China.
Unpacking the Problem of Educational Inequality Faced by Migrant Children in China
Inequality in education has been a topic of concern to all stakeholders in the education sector worldwide. In China, there are still some barriers that hinder education development, especially among migrant children. Some of the factors that are leading to this inequality problem are:
Strict Hukou restrictions: In china, every person has a registration document (hukou), which determines where a person can work, reside, where their children can go to school and what social benefits they can get (Liu, 2016). Most people with urban hukou are advantaged than those with rural hukou. Trying to change to an urban hukou is extremely difficult.
Children without Shanghai Hukou have to leave their parents: School resources are never equal between students with rural hukou and those with urban hukou, and as a result, kids do not have the same opportunities for better education (Chen & Feng, 2013). Most kids in rural areas are forced to move to urban areas where education resources are better, leaving their parents behind. A good number of migrant kids cannot attend public schools for the lack of HuKou; as a result, they move to private migrant schools far away from their parents.
Definition of criteria and evaluating policy alternatives operationalization
The criteria of vertical equity, implementation, and political feasibility will evaluate alternatives that address educational inequality faced by migrant children in China.
Evaluative Criteria: Equity and effectiveness will be used to assess available alternatives through evaluation. Equity means how the alternative solves the problem of educational inequality faced by migrant children in China. By measuring the reduction in inequality, the criterion of equity will encompass how the education system in China is impacted by policy (Corbin & Strauss, 2005). Operationalized equity will determine how every alternative increases the access for better and cheaper higher education in Shanghai by migrant children.
The Implementation criterion is used to measure how the alternative will be put into practice, or in other words, how the alternatives will be possible in the framework of education systems and if there will be available resources and abilities to accomplish the alternative. In this case, implementation is defined as putting the alternatives into practice to help the migrant children access better and cheaper higher education in Shanghai. Operationalization of the criterion will be done by assessing how each alternative brings down the inequality in education faced by migrant children in China.
Practical Criterion: Political feasibility will be focused on during analyzation of the alternatives through a practical method. For this problem, political feasibility is the political burden that the policy puts on multiple groups, including residents, migrants, and the government, and avoids fierce opposition. Based on the nature of the proposed alternatives, and their impact on the current situations, these groups might be forced to create new rules and programs that rhyme with the policies. Operationalization of political feasibility will be done by determining how each alternative allows affected entities (residents, migrants, and the government) to manage the effects of the policy.
Analysis of Alternatives to Reduce Educational Inequality Faced by Migrant Children in China
The following section analyzes three alternatives to reduce the issue, including their strengths and tradeoffs to inform selecting the best alternative.
Status Quo: If the situation is left as it is currently, urban authorities will mitigate costs and prevent public school admission for students with rural Hukou, and the Migrant people will continue to pay for the costly private schools. The Hukou rule was set in place1950s where each individual was supposed to have a residential permit. The permit determines where one can work or go to school. Between the 1980s and 1990s, Policies on education changed, and school expansion rules were put in place with a compulsory education system (Kuang & Liu, 2012). Laws were added in the 2000s to solve school fees and host governments' issues. Significant steps in education reform were taken in Shanghai, where a more inclusive system was developed. However, no changes have been noticed regarding Educational Inequality Faced by Migrant Children.
Grant a temporary Shanghai Hukou by developing a Merit-based evaluation program: This alternative would include offering a temporary Shanghai Hukou for qualified students. Currently, migrant children cannot enter public higher education without Shanghai Hukou. Similarly, Un-local Hukou students cannot take a college entrance exam in Shanghai (LIANG & CHEN, 2010). Public Schools could evaluate migrant children, and based on their performance at school, grades, or social abilities. They should offer a temporary Shanghai Hukou to the best and qualified students. This initiative will not only grant Migrant children chances to study in public schools, but it will also help to foster potential talents in China. However, Migrant parents might be against this since the policy puts pressure on migrant children for qualification indirectly.
Lower the tuition by subsidizing private schools: The tuition fees of private schools are currently way more expensive than what public school migrant students can afford. The education department could provide funding for a private school
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