Thesis (Dissertation Sample)
A thesis on the topic: A Study of the Transition from Management to Leadership in The Manufacturing Sector to Determine the Intricacies Involved in Management Style Changes.
The Thesis should fulfill the following research Objectives:
1. To determine the trends in the manufacturing industry.
2. To determine the reason manufacturing companies are changing from management to leadership
3. To determine the effect of the choice of management on organisational and employee performance
4. To determine the suitability of management and leadership during uncertain times.
A Study of the Transition from Management to Leadership in The Manufacturing Sector to Determine the Intricacies Involved in Management Style Changes.
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc110031447 \h 41.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc110031448 \h 41.1.1 Effective Management PAGEREF _Toc110031449 \h 61.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc110031450 \h 101.3 Research Aim PAGEREF _Toc110031451 \h 101.4 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc110031452 \h 111.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc110031453 \h 11CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc110031454 \h 122.1 Management Trends in the Manufacturing Sector PAGEREF _Toc110031455 \h 132.1.1 Globalisation PAGEREF _Toc110031456 \h 132.1.2 Shortage of Skilled Workers PAGEREF _Toc110031457 \h 142.1.3 A Different Calibre of Workforce PAGEREF _Toc110031458 \h 152.1.4 Automation PAGEREF _Toc110031459 \h 152.1.5 Covid-19 PAGEREF _Toc110031460 \h 162.2 Changing from Management to Leadership PAGEREF _Toc110031461 \h 172.3 Choice of Management Style Affects Production and Performance PAGEREF _Toc110031462 \h 202.4 Leadership and Uncertainty PAGEREF _Toc110031463 \h 232.4.1 Inform PAGEREF _Toc110031464 \h 232.4.2 Connect PAGEREF _Toc110031465 \h 232.4.3 Guide PAGEREF _Toc110031466 \h 232.4.4 Unite PAGEREF _Toc110031467 \h 242.5Research Insights PAGEREF _Toc110031468 \h 24CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc110031469 \h 263.1 Research Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc110031470 \h 273.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc110031471 \h 293.3 Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc110031472 \h 313.3.2 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc110031473 \h 323.3.3 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc110031474 \h 343.3.4 Data Presentation PAGEREF _Toc110031475 \h 363.4 Research Ethics PAGEREF _Toc110031476 \h 373.4.1 Participant's Wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc110031477 \h 373.4.2 Informed Consent PAGEREF _Toc110031478 \h 383.4.2 Anonymity PAGEREF _Toc110031479 \h 383.4.3 Confidentiality PAGEREF _Toc110031480 \h 393.4.4 Communication PAGEREF _Toc110031481 \h 393.4.5 Minimize harm and Maximize benefits PAGEREF _Toc110031482 \h 393.5 Research Limitations PAGEREF _Toc110031483 \h 40CHAPTER 4: DATA RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc110031484 \h 404.1 Demographic Information PAGEREF _Toc110031485 \h 404.2 Research Results PAGEREF _Toc110031486 \h 41CHAPTER 5: RESULTS DISCUSSIONS PAGEREF _Toc110031487 \h 505.1 Discussions PAGEREF _Toc110031488 \h 515.1.1 Objective One: To Determine the Trends in the Manufacturing Industry. PAGEREF _Toc110031489 \h 515.1.2 Objective Two: To Determine the Reason Manufacturing Companies are Changing from Management to Leadership. PAGEREF _Toc110031490 \h 525.1.3 Objective Three: To Determine the Effect of the Choice of Management on Organizational and Employee Performance PAGEREF _Toc110031491 \h 535.1.4 Objective Four: To Determine the Suitability of Management and Leadership During Uncertain Times. PAGEREF _Toc110031492 \h 545.2 Implication of Findings PAGEREF _Toc110031493 \h 545.3 Recommendations for Future Research PAGEREF _Toc110031494 \h 56CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc110031495 \h 57References PAGEREF _Toc110031496 \h 58Appendixes PAGEREF _Toc110031497 \h 66Appendix 1: Interview Questions PAGEREF _Toc110031498 \h 66Appendix 2: Ethics Application form PAGEREF _Toc110031499 \h 67Appendixes 3: Ethics Form PAGEREF _Toc110031500 \h 93
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
The world is rapidly changing with increased globalisation and advanced technological development. There is a growing integration of economies as different countries engage in more business across borders (Matt et al., 2015). These changes require companies from other sectors to use effective strategic adjustments to have an internationally competitive advantage. The manufacturing industry is at the core of these changes by increasing production as demand rises, thus fueling the development of other sectors worldwide. According to Wilson (2000), the manufacturing industry also facilitates the dissemination of current management approaches while guiding technological innovation trends. This sector is mainly dependent on design, innovation and labour. A report by Statistica Research Department (2022) shows that in 2016, the manufacturing sector comprised more than 16% of the employees in selected economies globally. With the expanding development, the numbers are projected to have multiplied, thus presenting a challenge to management and leadership.
The manufacturing sector is diverse, comprising physical, mechanical and chemical components in transforming raw materials into new products (Matt et al., 2015). Some manufacturing companies work with basic raw materials, while others use different parts from different manufacturers to make new products (Mango, 2018). This explains the various names assigned to these companies, from factories to plants and mills.
In addition, the Covid-19 pandemic has tested the manufacturing sector and its ability to weather such a crisis (Okorie et al., 2020). Covid-19 affected people's operations and movements. Safety regulations emphasised social distancing, stay-at-home initiatives and the use of PPE equipment to facilitate safety and reduce the transmission rate. This primarily affected the operations, thus testing the leadership agility in this sector. A report by GDS (2022) indicates that within the first six months of 2020, more than 3600 manufacturing companies filed bankruptcy reports. This was a 43% increase from the previous year's records, which indicates the difficulties presented by the pandemic. According to Hallin (2021), while there were many contributing factors to this phenomenon, management from a distance was a significant factor.
Historically, most manufacturing companies were small, with few employees relying on hand tools to craft and make new products (Weckenmann et al., 2015). However, with the industrial revolution, these dynamics changed drastically. Manufacturing was now done in factories using machinery that was operated by a large number of employees. Due to the low skills possessed by these employees, there was a need for managers to guide and instruct on what needed to be done and at what time. Adam Smith developed the division of labour and specialisation (Smith, 2015). Instead of employees doing many different things, this concept emphasised that they would be divided to perform specific roles under which they would perfect. The employees were able to boost their skills and ensure production efficiency. With cost accounting introduced, the management developed goals and structured and staffed the company to ensure the objectives were met to minimise costs while maximising profits (Nawaz & Khan, 2016).
However, with increased development, management facilitated skills-based staffing (Smith, 2015). They also plan and measure work performance to ensure adequate time management. According to Weckenmann et al. (2015), by the 1900s, management further involved scheduling jobs and managing the use of machinery. Later, the management role was divided to include the human relations department in 1927. This was followed by the quality control department, which used sampling and inspection to determine the quality (Nawaz & Khan, 2016). Through the 1970s, computers were introduced to the manufacturing sector leading to operations management. Management practices from duty analysing to developing policies and offering support to ensure that jobs are effectively done. According to Olmedo-Cifuentes & Martinez-LeÓn (2014), a company's management style should suit its operations to succeed. Management in the manufacturing sector increased as the scale of production and complexity of activities increased.
The top-down management style has been the most prominent in the manufacturing sector due to the diverse logistics involved (Manzini, 2012). This command-and-control method is based on a hierarchy where the factory owners were in power and charge of decisions making. They would employ sanctions on the workers in cases when they were late or if they did not adhere to the directions given. In a traditional approach, the manager sets the intended path and issues the expected tasks for the employees to follow (Chow et al., 2017). It ensures certainty in the ' 'company's direction and ' 'everyone's functions without question. This was effective in the past as manufacturing companies were in charge of control and giving direction (Manzini, 2012).
Presently, the manufacturing sector is mainly automated. Nguyen et al. (2021) report that more than 80% of manufacturing companies use automation. According to Acumen Research (2020), global industrial automation is projected to experience an estimated 7.2% growth between 2019 and 2026. The sector is expected to reach more than $285 billion by 2026 (Acumen Research, 2020). Industrial automation has enabled the manufacturing industry to reduce human errors, waste and operation costs while facilitating quality products, smaller product life cycle, efficiency and increased profits (Lu et al., 2020). The manufacturing sector can now engage in job-shop, batch, mass and continuous production. This translates to the presence of a large workforce that is highly specialised and follows the hierarchical structure within the company (Lu et al., 2020). Managers fit in to plan, make decisions, control, lead and direct resources, including the workforce, finances and physical resources.
1.1.1 Effective Management
Effective managers possess technical, interpersonal and conceptual skills. Chiu, Balkundi, and Weinberg (2017) indicate that managers should have specific qualities that facilitate their effectiveness in their roles. They understand the processes involved at the company, can effectively work with other personnel and can see the broader picture anticipated by the company. Th...
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