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Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning EDSS 6379 (Editing Sample)


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ADHD in America
Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning EDSS 6379
Fall 2014
The human brain plays an important role in coordinating normal body processes and growth, however, when the brain is not in its rightful state; an individual is bound to suffer in different ways. One of the conditions of the brain that continues to affect many children and older people in the United States is Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), also referred to as hyperkinetic disorder (Farrar, 2011). This condition is usually described as a psychiatric disorder; that most often affect an individual’s process of neurodevelopment. A person suffering from this condition experiences reduced levels of attention and hyperactivity, at the same time, other people often act impulsively in ways that are said to be not suited to their age. An individual suffering from ADHD starts to manifest these signs and symptoms at the age of six years to twelve, for effective diagnosis to be made, the person goes on to portray these symptoms for six more months. School going children that are suffering from this condition often perform poorly as reflected in the low grades and a general dislike for the entire learning process. This paper examines the prevalence rates of ADHD as a condition that can result in a life-long illness if it is left untreated; it explores various intervention approaches that have been used in treating the disease and the success of such interventions in America and other places.
Rationale for an interest in the study of ADHD
ADHD is one of the most studied among all other conditions and complications affecting neurodevelopment according to recent research reports (Smith, 2012). Many teachers have been blamed for their inability to help learners perform well in their academic endeavors, while other performance related issues are easily tackled with; ADHD has remained to affect many children without parents, teachers and other caregivers unable to detect it. Another point of interest in the study of this condition arises from the fact that medical interventions are yet to bring about solid evidence effectively for treatment approaches and mechanisms. There are several research programs being conducted in various parts around the world in order to establish the root cause of this conditions as well as the possibility for reliable intervention strategies.
Essential features of ADHD
One of the most prevalent features of ADHD is a continuous pattern of inattention as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity that most often interferes with the normal functioning of an individual (APA, 2013). All these features appear prominently in the affected individual while performing various duties and responsibilities at home, at school as well as during their social relationships on various occasions. It is important to understand that this condition most often begins at childhood, this means that chances of it affecting a grown-up in his older ages are rare. For a child, the signs and symptoms being exhibited from this condition need to be apparent in the manner and degree that is consistent with the child’s present development level, something that can be seen from a child’s behavior.
Social and Cultural perspectives on ADHD
According to various research reports, social and cultural factors are essential in understanding the past and present, as well as future trends concerning the prevalence of ADHD, its diagnosis as well as methylphenidate treatment plans (Longworth, 2005). According to this research report, the impacts of the consumption of methylphenidate have helped to reduce the effects of this condition in many children across the world. The development of treatment plans by different countries has led to a significant reduction of cases of ADHD among children between 10 years and 11 years (Longworth, 2005). According to this study, less than one percent of children in England are diagnosed with this condition yearly while in America, five percent of the same age group as those in England are said to be suffering from this condition.
These findings are attributed to the fact that UK doctors are less likely to deploy ADHD label compared to US doctors. The difference may also be tied to cultural factors. The United Kingdom uses most stringent criteria in the diagnosis of ADHD. Geffner (2009) notes that people in most western countries give preference to value autonomy and independence, on the other hand, the culture of people in East Asia give preference to a strong moral responsibility that comes with learning and education. In addition, children in East Asia show great acceptance for what their American counterparts call excessive parental involvement (Cook, Blakemore & Press, 2013). Another important feature of parental concerns is that it varies greatly across cultures. In general, there is still a dire need for continuous education to parents, teachers and caregivers about ADHD; this has to be in terms of signs and symptoms as well as intervention mechanisms.
Theories held about ADHD condition
ADHD can generally be described as a common disorder that affects many children during their early years and can continue to affect them in adulthood if proper intervention is not taken into consideration. The process of understanding the action cause and treatment mechanisms has continued to remain a mystery across the medical spectrum; however, there are several theories that have been devised in order to try to unravel the mystery behind this condition.
Neurobiological theory
While the real causes of ADHD continue to be a mystery to many people, studies about cerebral blood flows have tried to explain some of the possible causes of this condition. According these medical reports, positron Emmis on tomography scans that have been carried out on parents whose children suffered from ADHD indicated that they experienced decreased metabolism in their left frontal and parietal regions (Glannon, 2007). Studies reveal that those people that suffer from these brain conditions have decreased brain operation, which are responsible for the control of their motor systems and attentiveness. According to this theory, children that are diagnosed with ADHD condition often exhibit different neurotransmitters extent in their forebrain section (Trimble, 2007). In this regard, these children found it hard to effectively attend to various activities happening in their environment, they are unable to concentrate in their academic work in school, at work as well as coordinate important family affairs.
Environmental Theories
According to the environmental theory, conditions that are prevalent at the time the child is being born are important I influence occurrence of ADHD condition. According to this theory, pregnancy and birth insults are instrumental in contributing to the prevalence of this condition; this may happen if the newborn baby suffers a knock on the brain while being handled (Kaplan, 2011). The child may end up having neurotransmission problems as his brain develops if not properly treated; ADHD or a related condition prevails in the child.
In addition, the way a mother handles herself and her pregnancy plays an important role in determining whether a child develops this condition or not. For instance, there are those who explain that poor diet and emotional instability by a mother while carrying pregnancy can make their babies develop certain allergic reaction that can play a part in affecting a child’s brain developmental processes (Glannon, 2007). Besides the condition of a mother’s pregnancy there are different other environmental factors that contribute to the development of ADHD. In addition, exposure to certain environmental conditions is also known to contribute actively in the development of ADHD in children.
Exposure to various agents such as in the environment carries a strong chance of development of this condition, these agents cause injury to the brain, leading to trauma on the neurons of the brain. It is this trauma that causes the development of ADHD on a child or even a grown up, for this reason; it is always important for an individual to remain safe in his environment. According to research on these two theories, the environmental theory seems to be the most comprehensive, presenting a clear illustration on how this condition can develop in children and people in general. Environmental factors are also linked to the risks of ADHD. These factors include head injury, toxic chemicals such as lead and pregnancy complications. Brain injury is associated with later problems that affect learning and attention. Brain injury may worsen attention problems. Predisposition to lead lowers the intelligence quotient that may affect learning and reading abilities. Lead may also reduce attention and increase criminal behavior. This presents practical approaches that people can observe in order to be safe in their environment; they are able to avoid situations that can harm them in various ways in order to contribute to the development of ADHD and its related consequences.
Therapeutic Approaches to ADHD
In as much as clear intervention approaches for ADHD are yet to be formalized, research on the same has found two strategies that are being employed in the process of dealing with this condition in children and adult people (Nigg, 2006). The treatment approaches to this condition follow two main components; psychotherapeutic interventions, which are for children and older people, as well as the use of specific medications. Research has shown that medication approaches to treatment of ADHD plays an important role providing the much-needed relief against the signs and symptoms arising from ADHD. However, the person that is suffering from this disease should learn various ad...
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