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Conceptual Models (Essay Sample)

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Question 1 Conceptual analysis (Sowa)

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Running Head: CONCEPTUAL MODELS
CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS AS A HUMAN COGNITIVE ACTIVITY
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Question 1 Conceptual analysis (Sowa)
Concepts are mental representations used by the brain to dictate its functions in categorizing items in the world. Concepts are responsible for allowing people to come up with appropriate inferences about the experiences they face in their everyday life (Chalmers, 1996). As demonstrated in Sowa's work, conceptual analysis is an important tool in countering cognitive processes such as categorization, memory, decision-making, learning, and inferences. With reference to Sowa's work, the three concepts analyzed are concepts of freedom, moral responsibility, and ability (Chalmers, 1996).
Free will, moral responsibility, and ability
Everybody alive tends to make use of valid reasoning. However, the reasoning that is actually projected contrasts many logicians' works. Free-will reasoning performed by most people involves information obtained through many types of media. In a separate view, formal free will logic is primarily concerned with valid reasoning based on information in a single form only (Jackson, 1998). For instance, Sowa relates conceptual graphs to heuristic reasoning; however, it is far from being adequately developed or demonstrated by working programs within his free will sources. It serves it right to note that Sowa, out of free will, moral responsibility, and ability, develops a calculus of type definitions and schemas using a basic reasoning operator he identifies as ‘maximal join' (Jackson, 1998). Out of this, it is evident that multi-modal reasoning has become one big part of free will judgment.
In the context of free will, a person has the mandate to choose his or her course of action. Free will is an important aspect that comes in handy with moral responsibility and human ability. In all these aspects of conceptual analysis, there are concepts ‘behind' the words. One of the ways that Sowa use in identifying the concepts behind various words speaking boldly of what all people know, but rarely manage to say it all. He says that what can be termed as natural is dependent on the topic (Jackson, 1998). Conceptual perception involves using all means to create perception using any formula available. For instance, images could arise from either sensory stimulation of the free will at mind such that a derived meaning can be perceived and understood (Jackson, 1998). In light of it, internally generated images serve the same purposes with concepts placed behind a word. Consciousness is the greatest tool in mapping concrete concepts with perceived perception. Consciousness is a tool used to unravel the hidden concepts behind a free will judgment over a situation. Moral responsibility facilitates an enhancement tool in gauging proper free will and ability (Jackson, 1998).
Within all the works done by Sowa, he uses many concepts to enhance meaning and understanding of situations, and calculations. For instance, he uses conceptual graphs in essence of concept and related models specifically citing that every arc in every relation is linked to a concept in determination (Jackson, 1998).
Question 2 Pictures—and a thousand words (Hall)
A close observation of the human life reveals that it is based on beliefs and impact of beliefs on concepts brought forward by images. Sean hall elaborates further in his book ‘This Means This and This Means That' where he expounds on semiotics. The book is geared towards opening the minds of people to the in-depth meaning carried by graphic representation (McNeilly, 1996). He argues that semiotics subsumes textual, graphical, and interactive communication methods. He engages in using flowcharts, drawings, and directory trees as part of his diagrammatic language. diagrams are used to show internal meaning rather than telling what the writer means (McNeilly, 1996).
The first example he uses is images. He presents an image to the reader and on the image, he asks the reader a question for the reader to gurgle over the answers. He relatively goes ahead to discuss the answers that he thinks may suit the image to open more room for the reader to think critically and analyze (McNeilly, 1996).
For example, he uses an...
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