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Creative Writing
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English (U.S.)
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Maternal influence and Childs' pain (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
does maternal behavior has any influence on children's pain experience. source..
Content:
Maternal influence and Childs’ pain Name: Institution affiliation Introduction The pediatric journal in psychology is a journal that is published by the Oxford University press and it focuses on the development of children and to be specific on psychological development of the children. The hypothesis of this article is whether maternal behavior has any influence on children’s pain experience. The article has been published by  HYPERLINK "http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/search?author1=Christine+T.+Chambers&sortspec=date&submit=Submit" Christine T. Chambers,  HYPERLINK "http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/search?author1=Kenneth+D.+Craig&sortspec=date&submit=Submit" Kenneth D. Craig, and  HYPERLINK "http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/search?author1=Susan+M.+Bennett&sortspec=date&submit=Submit" Susan M. Bennett. The experiment carried out is to provide an experimental investigation of the impacts that the maternal behavior has on children’s pain experience. Method In this experiment, observation was used to gather the information required. There were 120 participants who were healthy. Gender equality was considered where there were 60 boys and 60 girls together with their mothers. The children ranged from 8-12 years old while the mothers averaged 42 years of age. The families were of middle to upper class in terms of the financial capabilities. In the experiment, mothers were randomly assigned and also trained on how to interact with the children in three different ways while the children on the other hand, were exposed to a lab-induced cold pressor pain. The children were also exposed to a pain-promoting interaction, a pain reducing interaction and then a non training control group. The training of the parents was based on the behavior that was imagined to have an impact. The children’s pain experience during the stage of cold pressor was assessed by use of the self reports of tolerance, heart rate responsiveness, facial activity and intensity and affect. Below is an analysis of what was measured; Pain intensity- they used the face pain scale which provides seven faces representing the increasing gradation of pain sensitivity. The children were asked to choose a face which indicated their level of worst pain intensity. The scale measured from 0-6 and it showed validity, preliminary and reliability scale ratios. Pain affect- they used the facial affective scale which provided nine faces that ranged from happiness to sadness. The children were asked to select a face that represented how unpleasant when they immersed their hand in a basin of water. The scale was scored by use of the affective magnitude ratings which were assigned to each face. They ranged from 0.04-0.97. Pain tolerance- this is whereby the length in time in which a child kept his hands immersed in the water was recorded. In this part also the child was asked to it voluntarily. Facial expression- the facial coding system of the child was recorded. In this, 13 represented discrete facial expression whereby 5 of these indicated pain. They were coded up to 10secomds for each of the children. After this, a summary of the 5 facial actions was calculated. Heart rate- this is the beats per minute of the heart. It was measured by use of the polar brand heart rate chest. The measurement was taken in intervals of 5 seconds. The means heart rate score was calculated which represented the entire time the child had his or her hand immersed in water. This investigation viewed as an experiment as there was the involvement of the participants and also the collection of data by use of machines. It is also termed as an experiment on accordance to the objective where they wanted to conduct an experimental investigation of the impacts that maternal behavior has on the children’s pain experience. This experiment can be termed as a survey research since the experiment is conducted to investigate the effe...
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