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Language Rules: Phonology, Semantics & Syntactics (Essay Sample)


The task required selecting a language with a diverse range of styles and speech registers that may be employed in a number of situations by its speakers and writers, the majority of which are informal. The goal of this study was to better understand the phonology, semantics, and syntactic structure of Hindi.


Language Rules: Phonology, Semantics & Syntactics
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Language Rules: Phonology, Semantics & Syntactics
Hindi is the local dialect of India, according to Shekhar et al. (2018). It is one of the most frequently spoken languages across the Indian subcontinent. Despite its origins in northern India, Hindi is studied, taught, spoken, and understood across the subcontinent, whether as a mother tongue or as a second or third language (Deo et al., 2017). Furthermore, it is related to Urdu: their syntax is nearly identical, and they share a large lexicon. It is, nevertheless, distinct in that it borrows most of its vocabulary from Sanskrit and is written in the Devnagari script. Hindi has a wide range of styles and speech registers that can be used in a variety of situations. It’s speakers and writers utilize the language in a variety of circumstances, most of which are informal. The paper investigates Hindi language norms in order to better understand its phonology, semantics, and syntactic structure.
Hindi occupy a single descriptive phonology page. Phonology is a discipline of linguistics concerned with the study of sound and the determination of a language's rules. It examines a language's speech patterns. Phonology is more abstract than phonetics since it deals with sound patterns' essentially unconscious laws. These patterns can be found in the mind or brain of a speaker of a specific language. This is regarded as one of the most important branches of theoretical linguistics. An asymmetrical ten-vowel system is inherent to Hindi. The vowels [a, i, u, e, o,] are usually considered short, but the vowels [aː, iː, uː, eː, oː, ɛː, ɔː] (Pandey, 2013). What are presumed to have been essentially dissimilarities of vowel length in Sanskrit (that is, /i i/ and /u u/) have emerged differences of quality, or length (that is, /i i/ and /u u/) in Hindi. In the word-final position, the past antagonism of length in near vowels has been counteracted. The fundamental set of 28 consonants in Hindi is inherited from earlier Indo-Aryan languages. Two consonants that are internal advances in explicit word-medial settings, as well as seven consonants that originated in loan words and whose expression is depending on characteristics such as standing and artistic register, round out the list.
Semantics is the part of literacy acquisition where sentences and word phrases take on meaning. The Hindi language is a verb-final language (SOV). The semantic system includes "...sentences, discourse, and the entire text" in addition to individual words. At times, words can have several meanings. Unless they have the semantic ability to derive meaning from the context of a sentence or phrase, developing readers are unlikely to comprehend what they're studying. Semantic knowledge offered information such as animacy, named entity categories, and verb selection constraints. Using named entity tag information, the category of pronouns and their referent are matched. The semantically unrelated pairs are filtered away. The semantic knowledge for each word is used to do semantic analysis (Begum et al., 2011). In nouns, number, gender, and case are all modified. Singular and plural numerals exist, as well as masculine and feminine genders in grammar and direct and oblique cases. There are two techniques to assign gender to nouns. Inanimate objects do not have gender based on their appearance or meaning. Pronouns are inflected in terms of number and case. Declinable and indeclinable adjectives are the two sorts of adjectives. The first is inflected for number, gender, and case (typically the –a: ending adjectives), but the second is not.

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