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Personality and Psychological Disorders (Essay Sample)

Task: Personality and Psychological Disorders The sample is about Personality and Psychological Disorders source..
Personality and Psychological Disorders University Subject code: Lecturer’s Name Student ID Date submitted The case of Jessica demonstrates an individual with a number of strengths and who has shown resilience despite her current condition. It is clear that Jessica struggles with major depressive disorder. During her college period, Jessica was hardworking individual, and it is demonstrated by her ability to achieve top honors in her studies—both in medical and college schools. This was followed by a major depressive disorder that affected her normal functioning in work and social life. She exhibits an extreme loss of psychological control, which is the hallmark of this disorder. Jessica often reports unusual fatigue, and this has hampered her working capabilities. Milton and Milton (2004) purport that individuals having major depressive disorder often loss energy, and they end-up being emaciated following their ‘weak’ nature. As for Jessica, the situation had demoralized her and she lacks concentration in her daily operations. In addition, Milton and Milton (2004) also argue that major depressive disorder often demonstrate a feeling of self-pity and worthlessness. At work, Jessica is withdrawn and irritated in every thing that is being undertaken; this shows the dramatic change of her life in relation to the past endeavors. According to Oldham et al. (2009), major depressive disorder is characterized by impaired concentration and insomnia. People often report indecisiveness especially in the work place, and the general operations of life. Contrary, an individual who has major depression possess insomnia, and this hampers the daily productivity of the individual. Jessica his having insomnia, and she had been struggling to get some sleep for several occasions. In some instances, she has been reported to have heated argument with her mother during the night, as she is irritating with everything and lacks sleep. It is difficult to restrain an individual who is highly depressed, as the person may lack the decisive decision making that will enable her not to realize her strategic goals and objectives. The activities of an individual with major depressive disorder will be diminishing daily, as one looses pleasure and interest of the environment. Having a low esteem in performing specific functions would always lead to lackluster in the company’s success. Other factors and characteristics that show the presence of the major depressive condition, though not illustrated in Jessica’s case, include feeling restlessness and dissatisfied about everything in the surrounding environment, recurring suicidal thoughts, and weight loss. The criteria for ascertaining whether an individual has major depressive disorder is that one should have at least five of these symptoms; and Jessica possess them. In psychiatry, the biopsychosocial model is the overriding paradigm use for the assessment and management of mental illnesses. The model acknowledges the dynamic nature of the biological, psychological and social dimensions of health and illnesses. The model enhances medical practitioners and clinicians to determine the phenomenon and the causative agent of depression. The hormonal release of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary mechanisms through which the brain influences the body during response to a stressor. The HPA axis is an endocrine system and involves the release of hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones may take minutes or hours to act and can spread throughout the body through bloodstream, travelling much farther than most nerves in the body.  INCLUDEPICTURE "" \* MERGEFORMATINET  With HPA axis in place, and its influence of the nerve system, psychological disorders are triggered. The model shows that the negative patterns of psychological assessment are determined through the whole process. Some of the psychological disorders include impairment in the emotional intelligence of an individual; problems with decision making process in the daily operations; and deficits or problems in coping with the trends in the environment. When psychological disorders are triggered, people will have problems with their emotional expression, knowledge, and perception (Milton and Milton, 2004). Jessica, being one of the victims of majorly depressive disorder, possessed these traits. The model also demonstrate that the psychological factors are also biologically influenced either in the form of individual’s innate temperament. Jessica was always irritated and non-sociable in the society and the daily operations in the economy. In the case of social factors, depressed individuals lack the ability to form a coherent relationship with their families and friends. Jessica’s situation demonstrates lack of social and cordial relationship in the society. One such incident is her reaction and the argument between her and her mother during the late night phone conversation. According to Milton and Milton (2004), other social factors that may depress individuals included harassment, lacking the much-needed social support, early separation and traumatic situations experienced by an individual. Claridge and Davies (2013) postulate that social events that are stressful often trigger the stressors or genes making the brain to function different. Jessica’s commitment in the organization was fruitless, and she felt traumatized due to the efforts she had subjected to her work, but with minimal results. The support from the executive management and her superiors would have guided her to achieve the much needed success and reduce the level of stress she was subjecting herself. Through this path, it is evident that a specific social stressor would trigger the physical cause of major depression. Jessica was left to attend to her demanding chores and social life, and the management and co-workers were not duly supportive. This increased her chances of being traumatized and leading a miserable life. Though actual trauma is critical and causes severity in an individuals’ health, social causes and environmental scenarios can be more traumatizing. Oldham et al. (2009), argue that harassment during childhood is not a significant aspect in determining the emotional characteristics of an individual and the psychological disorder that is caused by such a stressor; the case of Jessica demonstrates this scenario. Jessica’s feeling of worthlessness and her inability commenced when she was an adult, and it is not associated with previous harassments. Biopsychosocial model also provides that social factors, biological, and psychological factors influence each other outcome, though they are felt independently. Depression is caused by numerous factors, which it may be perceived to be independent, but rather they are interdependent with one another. As one factor triggers the other’s stressors, there is a possibility that a physical reaction would be evident regarding psychological or social stressor. Wi...
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