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Types of Dwarfism in Pediatric (Essay Sample)

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Abstract
150 words
Sources
Use appropriate sources, no specific sources were provided
Country of origin
United States
Topic: Dwarfism in pediatrics/infancy
Different types of dwarfism examples:
Primordial dwarfism, Meier-Gorlin Syndrome, Russell-Silver Syndrome,
Seckel Syndrome
Research/teaching Paper must include information about the topic in regards to dwarfism in Pedi/infants, birth, growth, and development.
All work cited and references from nursing journals. Articles needed also
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Content:


Dwarfism in Pediatric
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Abstract
Dwarfism is having a short stature whereby children with dwarfism have a lower height than other children of the same age. The types of dwarfism are primordial, achondroplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED). Primordial dwarfism has other types such as Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS), Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and seckel syndrome (SS). The general characteristics of primordial dwarfism are slowed head growth as compared to other parts of the body, shorter arms and legs, loose joints of the elbow hips and knee increasing risk of dislocation, and a high voice. Achodroplasia has symptoms like are bowed legs, small fingers, protruding jaw, and a large head. Pseudochoplasia is noticed after 2 years and has symptoms like irregularities in the hip and bones and S-shaped spine. Children with Seckel Syndrome have a slowed growth rate after birth although their stature is proportional and their stature is tiny. The severity of dwarfism depends on the type and individual. People with dwarfism live just like other people if there are no complications. 
Key words; Dwarfism, pseudochoplasia, sickle syndrome, primordial, Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and Achodroplasia.
Types of Dwarfism in Pediatric
Dwarfism in pediatric is a rare condition caused by genetic mutations, growth hormones, and other factors that are not clinically known. In other cases, dwarfism is inherited from parents and is usually present at the birth of a newborn baby. Dwarfism is having a short stature where children with dwarfism have a lower height than other children of the same age. There are different types of dwarfism which are primordial, achondroplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED).
Primordial dwarfism
Primordial dwarfism is a type of dwarfism that affects human development as early as well the baby is being formed in the womb. It is detectable from 13 weeks of gestation because babies with this type of dwarfism have retardation of the uterine growth. Therefore, the scans show that the fetus's growth is abnormal and gets worse even as the pregnancy proceeds. Children born with primordial dwarfism usually have low birth weight than other children with an average weight of 1.4kgs and a length of 16 inches (Nair et al., 2016).  Mothers carrying a fetus with dwarfism are likely to have premature birth at around 35 weeks. The normal gestation period is 38-40 weeks when the baby has fully formed all the parts. According to Herring (2020), the child’s head and body size is formed but they are tiny as compared to other children born in the same period. The general features of primordial dwarfism are slowed head growth as compared to other parts of the body, shorter arms and legs, loose joints of the elbow hips, and knee increasing risk of dislocation, and high voice (Vakili & Hashemian, 2019). There are other types of primordial dwarfism.
Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS)
Russell-Silver Syndrome is a type of primordial dwarfism where the fetus develops intrauterine growth restriction. Many abnormalities cause Russell-Silver Syndrome with 7 or 11 chromosomal abnormalities accounting for 60% of the syndrome (Nair et al., 2016). Some of the symptoms of RSS are low birth weight usually below the third percentile as compared to other children of the same age, poor feeding, and poor bone growth and development. Goodbody et al., (2021) found out that children with RSS are likely to have one smaller side of the body compared to the other side. Children with RSS also have large heads that do not match their body sizes. The severity of the symptoms varies in individuals. 
Meier-Gorlin syndrome
Meier-Gorlin syndrome is another type of primordial dwarfism also called ear-patella-short stature syndrome characterized by short proportionate stature and small or absent patellar. Children will develop small lips with full mouth and abnormalities of the mandible. Meir-Gorlin syndrome may occur after birth or while the fetus is developing in the uterus (Vakili & Hashemian, 2019). Therefore, it can be detected early in some people while in others it can be detected only after birth.
Seckel Syndrome (SS)
Seckel Syndrome (SS) is linked to gene mutations hence the risk of developing SS if the child inherits the genes from both parents. Children with SS have a slowed growth rate after birth although their stature is proportional unlike in other types of dwarfism. For instance, the head and the body size develop proportionally but are small than children of the same age. Some of the symptoms of SS are small head size than normal, tiny body stature although proportional, malformed ears, and narrow face (Vakili & Hashemian, 2019). Mental retardation is also present in SS but is noted later when children begin to learn, read and write. Depending on the severity, some children may experience dislocations of the neck, arms, or legs, and or curving of the spine. 
Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia is another type of dwarfism linked with gene mutations that promote bone and brain growth. It can also be inherited from parents with a dominant gene although, very rarely. Achondroplasia is a common type of dwarfism that affects one out of 26000 children (Herring, 2020). Some of the features of achodroplasia are small fingers, a large head, bowed legs, protruding jaw, and flat and broad feet (Pauli, 2019). Patients will have one or more than two symptoms depending on the severity of the condition. However, parents should monitor children to avoid the development of early childhood obesity. One of the severe symptoms is having fluid in the brain clinically called hydrocephalus. To manage hydrocephalus, the fluid is drained into the abdomen, and patients are regularly monitored by medical professionals. 
Pseudochoplasia
Pseudochoplasia is a type of dwarfism where children have short stature with moderate head circumference and face. It affects one out of 30,000 people showing how rare it is. Pseudochoplasia is linked with gene mutat

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