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Tourism and Hospitality (Essay Sample)


This research paper is founded on a case study analysis of "Winter at Tantora" a holiday destination located in KSA. The essay seeks to analyze the holiday destination based on a project management perspective. The essay begins by analyzing the history of the holiday destination and how it has become relevant in THE MODERN DAY. Further, AN IN-DEPTH analysis of the destination has been conducted to determine the diverse components provided by and how project MANAGEMENT practices may enhance the process. The study hence considered diverse theoretical frameworks, policies, and regulations that may be adopted to enhance THE efficiency of the process.


Tourism and Hospitality Industries
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Tourism and Hospitality Industries
In the modern-day, a growth in globalization has been experienced, which in turn has affected diverse aspects of our day-to-day life. With the advancement in globalization, geographical barriers have ceased to be barriers to travel. One sector that has been greatly affected by growth in globalization is the tourism and hospitality sectors. The tourism and hospitality sector has become a multi-billion sector attracting over a billion tourists each year. The growth in this industry has also served to advance the global market, which has concurrently led to the advancement in the economy in diverse areas. In addition, tourism has also impacted the social, cultural, and environmental spheres. The growth in both globalization and tourism has also served to advance the quality of life of people in diverse regions, which has advanced unity among regions and countries.
One distinct characteristic of the tourism industry is high competition, which creates the need to adopt strategies that attract more tourists at diverse levels. Regions, countries, cities, hotels, and travel agencies are constantly seeking to attract tourists through a targeted and rational approach which at its core focuses on meeting the demands of the tourists. The desire to develop a comprehensive tourism industry creates the need to establish comprehensive tourism management models. One of the commonly adopted strategies is the use of international project management in tourism and hospitality management.
This essay seeks to evaluate the application of international project management in the tourism and hospitality industries with an example of the “Winter at Tantora” case study. The essay is composed of three key sections. The first section describes the diverse internal project management theories and event management models. The second section introduces the "Winter at Tantora" case study paying enormous emphasis on the history of Al Ula. The third section presents a discussion that seeks to converge international project management strategies based on our case study.
International Project Management Theory
Project management is a broad scope, and as a result, there is no explicit theory adopted for project management. However, one of the most commonly adopted theoretical foundations of project management is best defined by the PMBOK model. The PMBOK model introduces two key theoretical perspectives; theory of project and theory of management. Fernandes, Ward and Araújo (2014, pg.81) explain that based on the theory of project, the term project may be defined as the conversion of inputs into outputs. During this transformation, key scopes have to be covered and include the division of a project into smaller projects, task accomplishment, and the independent minimization of individual task costs. Based on the theory of management, three key theories are adopted.
The first theory is the management-as-planning theory which considers management as a process of creating, revising, and implementing set plans. In addition, this approach identities the existence of a causal relationship between management strategies and project outcomes (Fernandes, Ward and Araújo, 2014, pg.82). The second theoretical perspective is the dispatching model, which acknowledges that a given planned task may be executed following the issuing of notification to start a given project. This theory argues that dispatching should be done from a central authority, and tasks should begin immediately after notification. The thermostat model is grounded on the creation of management control that serves to define a standard of performance, which is measured at the output (Fernandes, Ward and Araújo, 2014, pg.83).
PMBOK is a project planning model which has been incorporated in the tourism and hospitality sector. Fernandes, Ward and Araújo (2014, pg.81) explain that the diverse integration management processes are typically categorized into five key aspects; initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and closure. In addition, this theoretical framework identifies 42 key processes which must be incorporated to ensure effective project management. These management strategies exist in a matrix structure which incorporates the diverse processes, areas of knowledge and a category. Based on the above understanding, Oseko (2017, pg. 117) identified three key international project management models adopted in the tourism sector; PMBOK, waterfall, and Scrum.
The PMBOK model considers processes in project management as linear and is achieved through the adoption of design phases. Following the completion of one stage, initiation of subsequent stages occurs until the final stage is completed. The PMBOK model further emphasizes that the flow of these stages is subject to continuous planning, execution, monitoring, and control (Oseko, 2017, pg. 118). The Waterfall model shares similarities to the PMBOK in assuming a linear sequence from start to completion. However, the Waterfall model has enormous application in the hospitality sector; nevertheless, the model does not accommodate review and improvement of completed stages.
The Scrum model is among the most commonly adopted Agile development method. Oseko (2017, pg. 118) explains that the model advocates that projects develop through sprints. As a result, it is crucial to ensure that a project undertakes daily meetings, which helps in the monitoring of the project progress. The scrum model also relies on information dissemination through informal personal communication rather than computer connected communications. The use of formal communication in the Scrum model allows for the reduction in communication costs between team members and project managers. Oseko (2017, pg. 117) further notes that in the scrum model, command and control procedures are replaced with cooperation and collaboration. Lastly, the scrum model allows team members to make a technical decision without incorporating the team.
Event Management Model
The adoption of the PMBOK model in the tourism sector offers an in-depth overview of the project management system; however, the scope of tourism and hospitality encompass a broader outlook which include event management. Turner, Anbari, and Bredillet (2013, pg.2) explains that in understanding the aspect of event management, the EMBOK model was launched to counter event management EMBOK model essentially offers a comprehensive resource which serves in site selection, site development, event safety, security, and entertainment. This model has hence gained enormous credit internationally based on its ability to incorporate risk management strategies during event management. Turner, Anbari, and Bredillet (2013, pg.3) further notes that the EMBOK model offers a holistic approach for international event planners in bringing events into life through the incorporation of latest technological advancements.
The EMBOK model advocates for the use of four key concepts; phases, processes, core values, and knowledge. Niederman, Müller, and March (2018) explains that the EMBOK phases identifies key areas crucial to event management and include; initiation, planning, implementation, event, and completion. Second, the EMBOK core values define the governing principles that guide decision making throughout the diverse processes. These core values are critical in defining ethics and project integration specifically in creating international tourism and hospitality events. The EMBOK processes requires the use of an integrative and interactive system to establish course of action. The EMBOK processes also require the continuous assessment, selection, monitoring, communication, and documentation.
EMBOK further emphasizes on the need for knowledge and risk assessment. The knowledge domain is crucial functions in establishing and activities applicable in event management. Turner, Anbari, and Bredillet (2013, pg.3) note that this model offers a wide array of responsibilities to event organizers and effective knowledge management. The EMBOK knowledge domain hence serves five key contexts; administration, design, marketing, operations, and risks. The risk domain of the EMBOK model identifies protective obligations, opportunities, and legal implications.
“Winter at Tantora”: The case Study
In recent decades, countries have identified the critical importance of advancing their tourism sectors. One country that has taken an active role is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). KSA has over the past decades been a favorite tourism destination for religious purposes; nevertheless, the government of KSA has adopted a proactive approach in advancing their tourism sector through the establishment of new destinations focusing on tourism and hospitality. In recent years, KSA has identified numerous destinations that have advanced both domestic and international tourists. By 2018, these advancements in the tourism sector contributed to over 10 percent of the kingdom’s GDP which is equivalent to $65 billion (Global Newswire, 2019).. One of these tourist attractions that the country has promoted is the “Winter at Tantora” event.
The” Winter at Tantora” is a cultural festival held in Saudi Arabia at the historical town of Al-Ula. The festival was started in 2018 with its first season been held between December 2018 to March 2019. During the first season, the festival had an attendance of over 37,000 visitors exploring the historical city of Al-...

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