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Social Sciences
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Cognitive Psychology: An Individual Memory of Experiences (Essay Sample)

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Cognitive psychology
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COGNITIVE PSCHOLOGY
It is often considered that one of the important parts of the human, as well as animal behavior is in their ability to recognize objects, people, and animals that are essential for their survival. Object recognition is defined as the process of identifying a particular object in a video or digital image. Object recognition can thus be simplified to mean the ability to recognize an object. This ability could be derived from previously seeing an object, recognizing the object from the photographs or even fro the verbal descriptions. The basic approaches to the object recognition include the parts-based and the image-based approach. The parts-based approach is an approach relates to a wide range of detection algorithms used on images where different parts of an image are used separately with the aim of determining where and if an object of interest does exist. One of the examples of such an approach is the constellation model. The constellation model is a generative model that uses probability in category-level object recognition and like other part-based models, it attempts to represent an object through the use of asset of various parts under the mutual geometric constraints. The constellation model thus concentrates more on the geometric relationship between the various parts of object recognition (Weiner, 2003). Image based approach is considered to be a more direct approach as it combines the mesh creation and the geometric detection stages into a single process offering a more accurate and robust results. The image-based approach uses Voxel conversion technique thus providing meshes with tetrahedral and brick elements used in the processing of images. The image-based approach has been applied largely to the development of the 3D objects. One of the examples of the image-based approach developed for 3D is the augmented panoramas. The development of the augmented panoramas enables the representation of the3D exhibition by the panoramas while the 3D objects being exhibited can be augmented represented by either object movies or the geometric models. It has the advantage of easy image acquisition and rendering (Weiner, 2003).
Episodic memory represents an individual memory of experiences and particular events in a period in a serial form. It is from such memory an individual can reconstruct the actual events that took place in particular instances in their life. This memory is thus considered to be an autobiographical events memory which can be explicitly be stated. As such individuals often consider themselves as actors in these events making the entire context surrounding these events to be a part of the memory and not just bare facts. On the other hand, semantic memory represents a more structured facts recording thus providing knowledge, meaning and context about the external world that an individual has acquired. Thus, this memory is referred to as the general factual knowledge relating to personal experiences and shared with others. The semantic memory may thus have some kind of a personal context, however, standing alone as simple knowledge. Semantic memory thus includes such things such as social customs, capital cities, vocabulary and types of food. The differences between the episodic memory and the semantic memory include the following; first, episodic memory can be learned in a single exposure while semantic memory though can be learned in a single exposure can still be strengthened through repetition. Second; episode memory can be tagged with temporal and special context while semantic memory cannot necessarily be tagged with a context. Third, episodic memory is autobiographical thus provides the "I remember "notion while the semantic memory is factual and thus provides the "I know" notion (Baum, 1997).
In the most parts of the world adults often communicate to children differently than the do when communicating with the adults. When talking to babies adults often use elongated and high-pitched words in an exaggeration and accompanied with lots of facial expressions. This kind of speech is thus referred as child-directed speech. Child-directed speech is considered to be an unconscious act which often creates a bond between the child and the adult. Many researches have indicated that different communities and cultures have a different form of baby talk. However generally Child-directed speech has the following features; first, it is less complex that the normal speech. Adults often try to make the child understand what they are communicating and as such they unconsciously simply they speech when directed to the child. Second; the speech is more exaggerated than the normal speech. Child-directed speech is accompanied with lots of actions, and it’s also elongated. Third, in a child-directed speech, there are more frequent, and longer pauses and also the rate of speech is a bit slower. Fourth, child-directed speech consists of a special form of words and had limited range special forms. Child-directed speech is quite essential in the development of the child as there are various benefits associated with it. For example; first, it is considered to be a more effective way of getting a child attention. According to rese...
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