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Failure of Cyprus in preventing conflicts between communities (Essay Sample)


A fully-fledged research proposal.
Brief description of the practical problem that motivated you to do research on this subject. Why is this research important?
What is your research question/puzzle? What are you trying to explain?*
What is your argument?*
What are the competing answers to your question? In other words, identify the theories that you consider yourself up against.


Cyprus Failure in Peacekeeping and Preventing Conflicts Between Communities from 1964 to 1974
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Cyprus has long experienced interstate conflict between two groups, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. Since its creation and independence in 1960, necessitated by the Zurich and London Accords international treaties, the two ethnic communities have failed to agree on a power-sharing mechanism (Sözen, 2002). This long ongoing conflict began in the early 1970s when Turkey conducted a military coup and occupied the northern region of the area (Richmond, 1998). Such led to the Greek Cypriots occupying the south and Turkish Cypriots occupying the north. The research question analyzes UN’s failure to restore peace in the state. Undoubtedly, the organization ought to have maintained peace and order in the state because it is the main international organization that has practical resources and administration affiliations to do so. However, if the UN failed in its mission, it is evident that there are underlying problems that it should have addressed more profoundly. Undoubtedly, this research proposal will analyze various academic works of literature by different authors and information on the nature of the Cyprus conflict, various solutions undertaken, and recommendations to ensure peacekeeping efforts are a success.
Keywords: UN, Cyprus Conflict, EU, Greek Cypriots, Turkish Cypriots, Peacekeeping.
Cyprus Failure in Peacekeeping and Preventing Conflicts Between Communities from 1964 to 1974
The United Nations established the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) in 1964 to maintain peace and restore law and order (Ker-Lindsay, 2005). Together with the Greek Cypriots, the UN stood against Turkish troops' military force to enforce their right to occupy the Northern part of the territory through their legal provision, The Treaty of Guarantee. However, the UN experienced challenges in its peacekeeping mission as they could not establish common grounds for the two communities to negotiate (Richmond, 2001). According to Michael (2007), "One reason for failure was alluded to by the UN Secretary-General himself in his 2003 report: namely, that the intercommunal negotiations – alone and in isolation – were incapable of bringing about a resolution of the Cyprus conflict." While the Republic of Cyprus, led by Greek Cypriots, is recognized internationally, the breakaway state led by Turkish Cypriots is only recognized by Turkey, thereby elevating conflict in the state.
This research is important as it illustrates one of the biggest failures the UN has ever experienced. As an international organization with resources and unlimited jurisdiction, it is hard to imagine that the UN could not use its administrational positioning to end the conflict between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots. The research will attempt to address the history of the conflict and the subsisting drawbacks that led to the failure of the peacekeeping program. 
Hypothesis: The United Nation's attempt to restore peace in Cyprus between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots was a total disaster
Research Question: How did the United Nations fail in its attempt to restore peace in Cyprus between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots?
Literature Review
Trimikliniotis (2009) asserts that the Cyprus problem has been a constitutional one and is deeply embedded in which part of the state is 'politically correct. Müftüler-Bac and Güney (2005) and Kedourie (2005) maintain that since the UN initially failed, the European Union (EU) should be involved to avoid the destabilization of the south-east Mediterranean territory.
Similarly, Iseri (2004) and Demetriou (2004) maintain that the EU, in collaboration with the UN, plays an important role in ensuring the two communities find an amicable solution to their disagreements. Sözen (2010) maintains that the efforts of the EU are being hampered by the Greek Cypriot. In harmony with this position, she asserts that the Greek Cypriot should actively engage their goodwill and interest to ensure negotiations between them and Turkish Cypriot succeed (Sözen, 2007). Ker-Lindsay (2011), however, believes that Cyprus does not want to develop a solution because it enjoys the attention it gets. He states, “Others take a more cynical view, believing that the Cypriots have little inclination to reach a solution as they actually rather enjoy the international attention they receive. As George Mikes, a Hungarian wit, once famously, if rather unfairly, put it, ‘Realizing they will never be a world power, the Cypriots have decided to settle for being a world nuisance’.”
In contrast, Ulusoy (2008) believes that the Europeanization process of Turkey and the EU involvement made the Turkish government unstable and only brought more democratic problems. As such, Europeanization should not only be studied concerning state-centered assumptions that only focus on the power struggle in the Eastern Mediterranean (Ulusoy, 2009). Bucik (2012) and Kaul (2009) assert that the dispute originates from overlapping security and identity concerns. In agreement with Sözen (2003), who assert that the EU and the UN should not be the only third parties, Sözen and Yesilada (2002) and Müftüler-Bac & Güney (2005) suggest the need for an influential third party such as the US to intervene and coordinate the efforts of the UN and the EU and avoid a deadlock to the Cyprus problem. In addition, a successful solution to this problem, according to Karakaya (2017), is imperative as it has also affected Turkey's relations with the European Union.
Research Methodology
The research will analyze various literature works from different authors. Following the literature review, the project's focus would be to assess the failure of third parties such as the UN in resolving the conflict in Cyprus. The research will be qualitative and will integrate secondary sources. The research design will be descriptive, and the research will utilize sources from academic websites and other journal libraries.
Bucik, M. (2012, April). The Cyprus problem: The assessment of the 1997-2004 United Nations mediation and the rejection of the Annan plan. - Share research. Retrieved June 22, 2021, from
Demetriou, O. (2004, July). The view of political actors in Cyprus. University of Birmingham - A leading global university. Retrieved June 22, 2021, from
Iseri, E. (2004). The UN and the EU on the Cyprus conflict resolution. - Share research. Retrieved June 22, 2021, from
Karakaya, O. (2017). The Cyprus issue: A solution or deadlock the effects on Turkey – EU relations. - Share research. Retrieved June 22, 2021, from
Kaul, K. (2009). Cyprus: Understanding conflict 2009 student Field trip to Cyprus. - Share research. Retrieved June 22, 2021, from
Kedourie, E. (2005). The Cyprus problem and its solution. Middle Eastern Studies, 41(5), 649-660.
Ker-Lindsay, J. (2005, October). F

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