8 pages/≈2200 words
Estimating the effect of gender discrimination on income inequality among Dublin workers (Essay Sample)
Estimating the effect of gender discrimination on income inequality among Dublin workers source..
Research Project Proposal Name Institution Propose Title: Estimating the effect of gender discrimination on income inequality among Dublin workers Purpose Statement: The aim of the research is to To perceive whether gender discrimination affects income level between men and women The objectives are: To emphasize the role of gender on income inequality. To investigate the factors that contributes to income inequality. The main rationale of this research is to develop progressive policies that value male and female jobs equally, to eradicate the glass ceiling in work places and increase the number of women in executive’s positions. Main Hypothesis Gender discrimination plays a major role in the issue of income inequality Type of Design: Correlation design as the researcher will be looking for comparisons between two variables: They are gender discrimination and income inequality Quantitative approach will be used to collect data. SPSS will be used Variable(s) - If experiment, identify IV and DV, - If correlation, identify measured variables (PV and CV): Predictive Variable - Income Criteria Variable – Age, Gender, Discrimination Education, Professionals, Skilled and Unskilled workers. Literature review Gender discrimination has increasingly become a pervasive phenomenon with most cultures and economies discriminating between females and males. Almost in every part of the world, females find it more difficult as compared to their male counterparts gaining access to political power, education, and labor market. This clearly implies that gender discrimination is generally widespread and in many guises, it appears to be associated with a country’s cultural, economic, and social characteristics both as a cause and a consequence. Presenting the Index of inequalities in gender in four areas: education inputs, access to health, political participation and economic participation, Hausmann et al. (2006) noted that there is no one single country that has successfully eliminated the gender gap. According to this study, Nordic countries have the highest score in Europe when it comes to Index inequality in gender with Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Finland in top ten countries which are least discriminatory. In the Asian region, the Philippines fall in similar admirable segment with South Africa holding the highest position when ranked against other African countries, which were surveyed. The United States of America, ranks 23rd in this ranking. This study showed that as much as gender discrimination tend to reduce over time, the existing differences among nations are substantial and the overall progress seems slow and is subject to a number of setbacks. A study by Blau and Kahn (2007) indicated that within the labor market, men receive higher pay than women even when performing similar tasks and offering same experience, skills and with similar education background. This gender wage-gap works against women discouraging them from participating in the labor force. This directly impacts negatively on the output (Cavalcanti, & Tavares, 2007). This lower rate of women participating in the labor market has become a universal empirical phenomenon (Callan, 1991). It is widely believed that this lower participation of women may discourage investment in education of the young girls and increase their fertility (Klasen, 1999). For instance, female to male wage earnings ratio ranges from 75 percent in the U.S. to 41 percent in Ireland, around 21 percent in South Arabia, and 19 percent in Iran. Discrimination has been found to be economically inefficient because it prevents the equalizing of marginal rate of substitution in production (Callan, & Wren, 1994). Such inefficiencies translate to lower wages among women, and lowers the total output of an economy. A wide literature shows that there is gender discrimination existing within the labor market. For example, the report by the United Nations (2007) estimates that in Asian countries, approximately $ 47 billion of output is lost each due to lack of female active participation in the labor markets. Discrimination at the place of work is covered by employment Equality act. This Employment Equality act outlaws any form of work related discrimination such as vocational training, promotion, work experience, and access to employment. Other cases of work related discrimination that involve victimization, and harassment are also covered by this act. It is also outlawed for employment agencies, employment agencies such as trade unions, employer associations, and vocational training bodies to publish discriminatory advertisements. This law stipulates that employees who feel discriminated against unlawfully, may make a formal claim under the employment Equality Act through Workplace Relations Customer Service to the Equality Tribunal within a period of six months of the occurrence of the discrimination act. This legislation covers all work related aspects including promotions, recruitment, condition of employment, experience and training, and the right to equal pay. Even with this legislation in place, gender discrimination on income inequality among Dublin workers has continued to be one of the greatest challenges. Women in the contemporary society have made huge advances towards the realization of equality. However, gaps between women and men have continued to persist and have even multiply over time. This has caused the need for research and action to address issues of gender Compensation Discrimination not only in Dublin but to the world at large. Globally, this subject has been the source of controversy. In Dublin in particular, differences between genders have been the enduring source of controversy debates, and disagreement over centuries, especially in the 21st century where roles of women have dramatically changed when compared to roles of their predecessors. Differences in gender are natural, and controversies arising out of such natural phenomenon hinge on varied issues of equality, fairness, rights and privileges of persons, and treatment with regard to their genders. One of these issues is the growing tendency of certain organizations in Dublin to compensate female workers less for similar or equal positions of contributions and responsibilities to the progress and organizational growth better than the male counterparts. Generally, gender issues are not as such limited to the business and corporate world even though they exhibit and dominate themselves in environment where authority and compensation, acknowledgement for leadership, productivity, and management positions and these privileges are used in differentiating the sexes or gender. Higher education institutions, as well as some government offices are part of the terrain or environment in which Gender Compensation gap, and Gender Compensation Discrimination exists to create reality and perceptions of inequality between women and men. There are a number of organizations that work towards keeping track of such issues and work towards addressing them through education and research. Other studies have shown that inequality in Ireland covers a wide range of issues such as economic inequalities, and inequalities on a basis of ethnic minority or gender and so forth. According to Russell (2004) there are several factors that create difficulties and barriers and make people in Ireland subjected to the increased risk of poverty. In view of Blinder (1973) such factors need be seen within the broader structural context of the way a certain nation chooses to tackle the inequality and distribute wealth. At an individual level, some major factors can be seen as making an individual be at a risk of being in the state of poverty. Such factors include (Becker, 1971): Having a poor quality job such as precarious jobs, which limits one’s access to a decent pay/income and cuts his/her off from social networks. Low level of skills and education because it limits one’s ability to access a decent job that can enable him/her to develop and fully participate in the society, the type and size of the family i.e. lone parent family, large families which tend to be at a higher risk of poverty because of lower incomes, higher costs, and more difficulty on accessing well-paid jobs, Gender, where women are at greater risk of being in poverty compared to their counterparts because of being less likelihood to have lower pensions because of being in less paid employment as they are often involved in caring responsibilities which are unpaid and whenever in work, they more often than not paid less. Ill-health or disability because it limits one’s access to employment and leads to increased day-to-day costs. Living in an advantaged community or a remote area where access to decent services is worse. And being one of the members of minority ethnic groups for instance Roma, the Traveller Community, undocumented migrants or immigrants as they frequently suffer from racism and discrimination with less chances of accessing employment. They also have poorer access to important services because of living in worse physical environments. The 2007 Bank of Ireland Wealth of Nations report indicates that the top 1 percent of the Ireland population held 20 percent of wealth with the 2 percent holding 30 percent and the top 5 percent holding 40 percent (Bank of Ireland Private Banking Limited, 2007). Generally, as far as Ireland is concerned, there have been several important changes within the society, which are relevant for the understanding of equalities. They include increased immigration, changing social attitudes, changing composition of labor market, and the changing family structure. The changes were accompanied by an increase in awareness of equality, which was brought about following the establishment of the Equality Authority in 1999 alongside the implementation of Employment Equality Acts between in 1997 to ...
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