Homework Epidemiology Biological & Biomedical Sciences Essay (Essay Sample)
Homework assignment. Answer 10 short questions.
1. What type of study is presented in the article? Where were the two studies presented in this
2. What was the outcome being investigated in these studies?
3. How were cases identified in Michigan?
4. How were cases identified in Virginia?
5.What was the process of selecting controls in Michigan and Virginia? What differences were there in
6. Both studies have the same exposure of interest, what is that exposure? How was exposure
ascertained in each study?
7. Identify at least two potential sources of bias in these studies and describe the source of that bias.
8. Choose one source of bias and propose at least one way that the bias could have been prevented.
9. Identify at least one potential confounder in the study.
10. Describe how the researcher could have developed the alternate type of study. For example, if you
are reviewing a cohort study, propose how the same analysis could have been done using a case control
study model. Describe how the cohort or case and control groups would be identified, and how the
exposure and outcomes would be determined and identified.
1 The article applied an experimental mode of study. This study was conducted in Michigan City, and it involved the practical investigation of the rate of exposure of the people to E. coli 0157:H7 disease.
2 The study investigated the exposure of E. coli 0157:H7 disease in Michigan State. The study discovered that almost 64 people in the state were highly exposed to MDCH. Generally, the researchers found that the elderly and young children with less than five years are vulnerable to E. coli O157:H7 illness.
3 The cases of exposure in Michigan were identified by interviewing and using questionnaires to healthcare institutions' stakeholders.
4 In Virginia, the researchers applied several research methods such as interviewing, using secondary sources, and applying questionnaires in several places in the state.
5 The cases of E. coli O157:H7 were identified through interviewing of 27 sets of case-controls. The researchers associated alfalfa sprouts, a type of food, with E. coli O157:H7. Fifteen patients out of the selected 27 were found to have taken alfalfa sprouts a week before the disease outbreak. On the other hand, Virginia had 32 cases of patients exposed to E. coli O157:H7 disease were reported. Like in Michigan, 20 case-controls were involved in the study. 13 of the 20 patients selected for the study were found to have taken the alfalfa meal since the disease's outbreak. These steps enabled the researchers to identify the causes of exposure of E. coli O157:H7 in Virginia. The fundamental difference in the case-control sets in the two states was in the number of patients used in the groups. For instance, in Michigan, the researchers used 27 cases, while in Virginia used 20 instances.
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