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Water Pollution on Marine Life (Essay Sample)

topic: Effects of water pollution on marin life format: mla number of pages: 11 number of sources: 8 order description: write an essay about the effect of water pollution on marine life. : highlight and explain the sources of water pollution in relation to marine life. : exlain how these sources of water pollution affect marine life, both animals and : plants. source..
Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Course Title Due Date Water Pollution on Marine Life Introduction Water pollution has adverse effects on marine life. It affects the animals, plants, habitats, and the ecosystem in general. This pollution is caused by many things, such as human activities as well as biological effects. There is evident pollution that has been taking place in recent decades. There is, therefore, the prediction of how it will look in the future if at all, the current trend continues. By the year 2015, the population of the world is estimated at 9.7 billion people (Mariann 11) (2018). As a result of the increase in population, there will also an increase in resource consumption. Hence, there will be more waste products that will be produced by human beings. There are so many people who live in coastal regions across the globe. These are estimated to be 2.5million inhabitants that have been living in these regions. Also, a good percentage of waste that is produced in the world is thrown into the sea, obviously without the correct processing techniques. It is estimated that approximately 20 billion tons of waste products are thrown to the sea each year across the globe. As a result, there are consequences that must be experienced in marine life. There are, therefore, various effects of water pollution on marine life, as discussed in this paper. Effects of Mercury Water pollution affects the lives of fish that live in the water. A study that was done exposed fish to mercury that had a concentration of 5-160µg/L about 28 days (Mearns 1829). (2013). As a result, there was a reduction in the growth of the fish. There was also bioconcentration and dose-related traces of mercury in the muscles, bones, kidneys, and gills. After the fish were collected in the field, there was a significant relationship between the accumulation of mercury and fish size. Laboratory studies that were also taken in the rivers indicated that fish had consumed a lot of metals while in the river. There was evidence of methylmercury and arsenic that was distributed throughout the body of the fish. Research has also indicated that mercury concentrations in aquatic life increase in the tissues as these animals become bigger and older. The concentration of the mercury depends on the depth at which these fish species live in the oceans. It also highly depends on the facts whether they live in open waters or they live in closer waters such as those that are near the coast. Coastal regions have high vulnerability to contamination (Barbara 6) (2016). Effects of Radionuclides Radionuclides also affect the life of algae and sea grass in the ocean. A sample that was collected indicated that as a result of radionuclides, there were large amounts of cesium that were founded in the life of green algae. These radioactive materials are swallowed by animals in the tissues, but however; they reach a point of equilibrium. An example of fish that were traced to be having these traces of radioactive materials is fished that was collected after the accident of Fukushima (Mearns 1831). (2013). Impacts of Oil Spills The oil spills that are found in water also have dangerous effects on marine life. Oils spills are associated with increasing fish mortality. They can kill, or lead to sub-lethal destruction to fish larvae and eggs. These include effects such as morphological deformities. The fish are exposed to their predators, and also their habitats are degraded. The fish can also lose the capability of hatching eggs and have various impairments. These include impairments such as respiration, growth, feeding, and development. When fish that are in their early lives are exposed to oil spills, a little concentration of oil spills can lead to their death (Yuewen 3) (2019). These can also cause malformed morphological structures as well as circulatory failure. Research done showed that some of these effects were experienced due to crude oil exposure to the animals. As an example, a researcher found that when a young pink salmon was subjected to crude oil, then they had stunned reactions. They had a low and slow movement and inconsistent swimming. They also had lost balance and stability when swimming. Other fish species that are highly affected by oil spills are zebrafish, cod, and haddock in which they show different effects. In some of the fish, the surface of the chorion decreases through the earlier years to hatching if embryos are left to the late embryo growth stage. Some birds are also parts of the marine life, and therefore they get affected when the water is polluted by oil spills. Oil exposures to birds are known to cause harm to the kidney, liver, and lungs. A common effect on birds is that it causes feathers ensnaring that interrupts the microstructure of the feathers. Ensnaring is harmful to the birds since it causes them to lose their flying and floating ability because of the compressed plumage that enables liquid to make contact with the skin. It causes hypothermia and, at last, causes the death of these birds mostly during the cold weather seasons. Birds that have been subjected to oil spills get their health affected and may have problems such as hemolytic, cachexia, and ulcerations. A study indicated that a type of bird known as the mallard duck had weathered oil. As a result, the seven-day-old bird embryo was deceased just because of small amounts of weathered oil (Yuewen 3) (2019). Other effects of marine life pollution include eye damage and also adenoidal tissue destruction. It also causes adrenal diseases among marine mammals. The mammals that are commonly affected include the dolphins, sea turtles, and whales. Also, the sea turtle is affected by oil spills because their fur gets soiled, and that prevents water repellence and insulation. Most of these mammals, such as the whale and the dolphins, breathe at the sea surface. In case the water is affected by the oils, then they may encounter respiratory irritation, gastrointestinal inflammation, diarrhea, ulcers, among others, that may lead to organ damage. The mammals that have hypothermia risk, unlike the mammals that do not have furs. Sea turtles after consuming oil get the esophageal papillae that take place in their throats. Since these animals can inhale in extended times, there is a high risk of these oils getting into their bodies. Sea turtles that are coated with oil have problems in diving, mating, and feeding. The pollution also exposes them to challenges in respiratory processes that can make them become exhausted easily and have inadequate fluids in the bodies (Yuewen 3) (2019). The oil spills also have negative effects on invertebrates as they destroy their habitats na the ecosystem. The pollution can also lead to chronic and acute toxicity. Crustaceans are examples of marine lives that are also affected by oil spills. They commonly get affected as they dif into the sediments of oil. Crabs can be affected by the oil spillage when the gills are blocked, and they might experience low feeding after that. Researchers have identified that there is a large number of crab deaths as a result of oil pollution (Yuewen 3) (2019). Discoveries have displayed that some of these impacts last for long, and at times, there are no recoveries that can be made. Amphipods are another kind of marine life that die in large numbers after being exposed o oil spills. These marine animals are mostly affected by oil spills due to their inability to make movements, and also they do not have a planktonic larval stage. How Aquatic Plants are affected These plants can live under or on the ocean surface. When oils spill in the ocean, it can hinder the growth of these plants in many ways. One of the major ways is cutting the air supply for the plants that grow under the water surface. The oil acts as a blockage lower on top of the water that prevents the air from being absorbed in the water. Secondly, the oil blocks the sunlight from the sky, making it impossible for these plants to so photosynthesis. Therefore these plants can no longer make food. The absence of photosynthesis makes plans to fail in germination, and therefore, there is no growth. As a result, plants face problems in transpiration, and most of them die. Oils spilling on the water are very facts on its spread. A small quantity of oil can cover a lot of surfaces, thereby blocking sunlight and air from getting to the aquatic plants (Sciencing 3) (2017). Oil spillage can also lead to further damage as it enables the growth of more algae. Algae might grow too fast in the water, therefore, threatening the growth of other aquatic plants in the ocean. Plastics in marine life Plastic that has been found in the oceans have caused great effects on marine life. This plastic occurs in various forms, such as debris. Some of these marine animals ingest this debris when they mistake them for food. Plastic is also attributed to the transportation of marine organisms from one place to another. For instance, the ingestion of this debris leads to effects on marine life. Marine animals can ingest plastics once they have mistaken these materials with food. These materials are trapped in the stomach as a result. These plastics are known to cause entanglement in marine birds. Most of the birds that live in the marine are food divers. Entanglement in seabirds is mainly caused by six-pack rings and fishing lines. Birds can mistake these materials for jellyfish or other types of food. One of the birds that are at a very high risk of being a victim of plastic pollution is the gannet bird. Due to its high diving ability, the bird can be easily captured by ghost nets. Research has indicated that there are many of these birds that have died as a result of being entangled. In the Netherlands, a study indicated that in 1970-200, approximately 5.9% of gannet deaths were associated with plastic pollution in the marine (Hammer 21) (2012). They were...
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