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Antibacterial Effects of Oregano Oil and Winter Savory (Other (Not Listed) Sample)

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the task was to write an extended outline on The antibacterial effects of oregano oil (Origanum vulgare ) and winter savory (Satureja Montana) on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Salmonella Enteritidis. It was important to show how The use of oregano and winter savory essential oils has proven effective in treating multidrug-resistant bacteria, including P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis. Nevertheless, it is imperative to conduct further studies to determine whether there is a possibility that these microbes can become resistant to the essential oils.

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The antibacterial effects of oregano oil (Origanum vulgare ) and winter savory (Satureja Montana) on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Salmonella Enteritidis
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Title: The antibacterial effects of oregano oil and winter savory on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Salmonella Enteritidis
* Introduction
* In recent years, the topic of antibiotic resistance has dominated discussion for scientific and health care providers. The debate follows an aftermath of a high number of infections linked to bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis, which resulted in major human illness and deaths around 1985 to 1999 in the United States (Patrick et al., 2004).
* Background details on Oregano and Winter Savory oils
* Oregano oil is an herbal supplement popular for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant features (Leyva-López et al., 2017).
* It is mainly extracted from the oregano plant leaves and contains antioxidants such as carvacrol, terpinene, and thymol to help fight against cell damage by free radicals (Leyva-López et al., 2017).
* Alternatively, savory oil is extracted from the Satureja Montana plant and has plenty of antioxidants such as terpenes, carvacrol, cineol, pinene, cymene, and thymol (Maccelli et al., 2019).
* Conventionally, this essential oil has been used as an analgesic, nervous and circulatory toner, as well as a spice for food. It is also used for treating diarrhea, arthritic joints, insect bites, and hair loss (Maccelli et al., 2019)
* Background information on P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis
* P. aeruginosa is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, and aerobic bacterium that causes infections in animals, plants, and humans. It poses severe threats, particularly to immune-compromised patients with cancer, cystic fibrosis, or serious burns (Driscoll et al., 2007).
* It has a sweet grape-like smell with a pearlescent appearance. It uses a single flagellum to move by twitching or swimming. P. aeruginosa has simple nutrition; it requires ammonia and acetate to obtain nitrogen and carbon, respectively (Diggle & Whiteley, 2020).
* This bacterium thrives well in temperatures of between 25°C to 37°C but can also exist in an environment of 42°C. It also exists in a variety of environments like water, soil, plants, and animals. Nevertheless, it is found in significant numbers on fresh vegetables and fruits (Diggle & Whiteley, 2020).
* Conversely, S. enteritidis is a gram-negative, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterium that does not produce spores. This bacterium is mainly adapted to animal hosts, particularly poultry. Also, it is a facilitative anaerobe implying that it can survive in many environments. S. enteritidis causes food-borne illnesses such as gastroenteritis (Jajere, 2019).
* S. enteritidis can exist in low temperatures. It thrives at temperatures of 5 to 45°C. Its motility is through the use of flagella. This bacterium obtains its nutrients by converting glucose to pyruvate. The process provides the energy required for its growth and reproduction (Saleh et al., 2019).
* Antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis
* The eradication of P. aeruginosa has become exceedingly challenging due to its increasing capacity to resist antibiotics. This bacterium has shown resistance to several antibiotics, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones (Pang et al., 2019).
* The increasing resistance of this bacterium to antibiotics is due to its acquired, intrinsic, and adaptive resistance. The microbe's acquired resistance results from mutational changes or horizontal transfer of resistant genetic material. Intrinsic resistance is caused by the bacterium's creation of antibiotic-inactivating enzymes and its low outer-membrane permeability (Pang et al., 2019).
* Alternatively, its adaptive resistance results from the formation of biofilm in the lungs of infected persons. The biofilm acts as a diffusion barrier to restrict the access of antibiotics to the bacterial cells (Pang et al., 2019).
* The multidrug resistance in S. enteritidis strains has become a global health problem. This bacterium's strains have shown antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline streptomycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, and kanamycin (Nair et al., 2018).
* The antibiotic resistance of S. enteritidis has been attributed to a combination of mechanisms. One of the major causes of antibiotic resistance is due to horizontal transfer of resistant genes, which is mediated by the plasmids. Another contributor to the increasing antimicrobial resistance is multiple gene mutations. The existence of an active efflux pump reported in some strains of this bacterium builds its resistance against antibiotics (Nair et al., 2018).
* Antibacterial effects of oregano oil on P. aeruginosa
* Oregano oil has considerable antibacterial effects against several multidrug-resistant microorganisms, including P. aeruginosa. It fights against this bacterium by eradicating the biofilms formed as a barrier between the bacterial cells and antibiotics (Lu et al., 2018).
* Also, oregano oil effectively inactivates P. aeruginosa. It targets and damages the bacterium's cell wall, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and membranes while disrupting and halting the bacterium's intracellular processes (Lu et al., 2018).
* Oregano oil significantly lowers the bacterial load. It inhibits bacteria's growth, making it have a more potent antibacterial activity than antibiotics (Sienkiewicz et al., 2012). The higher inhibitory effect has been linked to the chemical structures of its most abundant elements like carvacrol and thymol (Özkalp et al., 2010). In this case, it lowers the bacterial load of the P. aeruginosa.
* Though, it inactivates the P. aeruginosa bacteria among other microbes. It does not pose any life-threatening side effects to the body. It has not shown any genotoxicity or cytotoxicity to the skin (Lu et al., 2018).
* Antibacterial effects of winter savory on S. enteritidis
* The Satureja Montana oil has considerable antibacterial activity against the S. enteritidis isolates (Maccelli et al., 2019).
* The antibacterial effects of this oil have been linked to high contents of phenolic elements such as thymol, terpene, linalool, p-cymene, and carvacrol. These lipophilic elements tend to alter the bacterium's cell membrane's structure and function, thus making it inactive (Maccelli et al., 2019).
* Likewise, this essential oil has significant inhibitory effects against the S. enteritidis bacterium. A high concentration of winter savory significantly restricts the growth of this bacterium. Combining this essential oil and Nano-emulsion formulations greatly improves the inhibitory effects against the bacterium (Maccelli et al., 2019).
* Even though the winter savory has shown significant antimicrobial effects against S. enteritidis and other multidrug microbes, further research should be conducted. This may help understand each compound's contribution to the essential oil in the antibacterial activity to explore the potential application of the oil for clinical purposes (Maccelli et al., 2019).
* Conclusion
* The use of oregano and winter savory essential oils has proven effective in treating multidrug-resistant bacteria, including P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis. Nevertheless, it is imp

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