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2 pages/≈550 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Research Paper
English (U.S.)
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Viruses Biological & Biomedical Sciences Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)




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The use of animal models has always been crucial in gaining an understanding of the Zika virus pathophysiology. The animals, in particular, mice, were exposed to the Zika virus once the discovery of the virus was made (Bradley & Nagamine, 2017). With time and the progress in genetic engineering, different animal models have been used, which have changed how they react to the virus as a sign of antiviral defense. Additionally, the unvaccinated infected monkeys displayed negative fetal outcomes since they had the Zika virus in their blood. For instance, while there was no early fetus loss among the vaccinated monkeys, some unvaccinated monkeys lost their fetus early in their pregnancy (National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2019). The fetus from the unvaccinated monkeys also had some level of noticeable virus RNA. This revealed that the transmission of the Zika virus from a mother to a fetus is possible.
Yes, the Zika is endemic to the Indo-Pacific region since it has resulted in huge epidemics in countries like Australia, Indonesia, Singapore and the United States compared to other regions. Zika outbreaks were first reported in the Indo-Pacific region in the 1980s, and they have since been persistent (Duong, Dussart & Buchy, 2017). For example, since the first Indonesian Zika virus case in 1981, Indonesia has experienced additional and more recent Zika virus outbreaks (Wiwanitkit, 2016). Besides that, travelers from Indonesia have also been noted to have the virus. Similarly, Singapore has also had outbreaks of this virus because of the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the area, which are able to transmit the virus (Wiwanitkit, 2016). Moreover, the Zika virus is more common in the Indo-Pacific area since the region’s tropical climate has a high incidence of arboviral illnesses.

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