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Negotiation as a Social Process: Example From Saudi Arabia (Research Paper Sample)


While most studies in negotiation and conflict management have focused on cognitive aspects, few have addressed the impact of social processes and contexts on the negotiation process. Addressing this need, Roderick M Kramer and David M Messick have brought together original theories and research from leading scholars in this emerging field.
In this part, you will give an overview of your topic and the points you are going to cover.
Methodology: here you write how you will be collecting data using primary or secondary research what is your method, however, I suggest, using secondary data there is not enough time for primary research.
Body paragraph 1:
Here you explain the point specifically by providing an example.
Body paragraph 2:
You are also required to illustrate the second point in more detail with an example.
Body paragraph 3:
In this paragraph, you will follow the same format choose the point you will have already mentioned in your introduction and explain it and provide an example to make the report more understandable.
Conclusion :
One paragraph summarises what mainly your topic is about re-stating the points you will have already covered in your body paragraphs but without too much information just a summary.
Note: your research is 1800 words up to 2000 is still acceptable, but not less than 1800. 15 references only, not more not less (APA style)


Negotiation as a Social Process; Example from Saudi Arabia
           Humans are social beings; thus, they need to interact from time to time for life to be meaningful. They depend on each other for support, help, and comfort. However, sometimes the interactions result in unwanted outcomes. The unwanted outcomes occur since not all interactions produce peace, harmony, and agreement. Often human beings contradict in reason and actions leading to conflicts or misunderstandings. The occurrence of misunderstandings leads to the need for a solution. Best solutions usually favor both sides to create harmony since a lack of it leads to conflict. There are several ways that human beings use to reach agreements. Negotiation is one of the most effective ways of solving conflicts and restoring broken relationships. However, negotiation is also applied in business when people want to reach an agreement for the business. The parties come together to offer their sides in the bargain with the hope of reaching an agreement. Most studies in negotiation and conflict management have focused on cognitive aspects. Nevertheless, few scholars have addressed the impact of social processes and contexts on the negotiation process, among them being Roderick M. Kramer and David M Messick, who present negotiation as a social process. This paper defines negotiation and explains its elements from both the cognitive and social process perspective while considering Saudi Arabia as the reference point. The study will consider secondary data in its research, considering the views of other scholars and researchers on the given subject.
Negotiation as a Social Process
           Negotiation is the process of finding a solution to conflicts between individuals or groups and creating the chance for both parties to gain (Akinlua, 2020). It may not be easy to reach a win-win situation, but negotiation implements strategies to ensure parties reach a common ground and agree. As aforementioned, most studies focus on the cognitive aspects of the negotiation process. The cognitive aspect involves the exchange of tangible and intangible materials to reach the required destination (Al-Aloosy, 2022). In other words, people find satisfaction in being given something in exchange for another; thus, the cognitive aspect relates to the exchange of information or tangible materials to have people come to an agreement. It assumes that negotiation depends entirely on knowledge construction (Gordon, 2022). The dependence on knowledge construction means that a party will only reach an agreement if the shared subject makes sense. However, the cognitive aspect is limited by itself since, through interaction, negotiation also involves the social aspect. The social aspect involves the integration of social processes. The social processes refer to the changes that take place in a society over time and include cooperation, competition, and conflict (Arnold & Airth, 2022). As people interact, they either cooperate in specific tasks, compete to 

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