Eating Disorders among Adolescents (Research Paper Sample)
The objective of this project was to research eating disorders among adolescents. Successful completion of this task required using medical-based websites like Mayo Clinic to define various eating disorders. Another requirement was to use three peer-reviewed articles about eating disorders among adolescents. The assignment required a brief discussion of the researchers' different sample sizes, methodologies, results, findings, and conclusions. Lastly, it was vital to discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and the things I agreed or disagreed with regarding the authors' works on the topic.
Eating Disorders among Adolescents
San Jacinto College-North
Eating Disorders among Adolescents
Mayo Clinic defines an eating disorder (EDs) as a multifaceted behavior concomitant with anomalous or disturbed eating practices. Examples of EDs include "binge eating disorders" (BED), "anorexia nervosa" (AN), and "bulimia nervosa" (BN). AN is linked with considerable low body weight, biased perception of shape and body, and fear of weight gain. BN is related to overindulgence in food and purging, while BED is associated with increased overeating. EDs can result from genetic factors or psychological elements. Most EDs are due to psychological problems that trigger the affected individuals to engage in impulsive traits such as restrictive eating, obsessive exercise, excessive eating, and purging through vomiting (Mayo Clinic, retrieved 4/10/2021). The signs of EDs include too much focus on an individual's body appearance, weight, and food leading to dangerous eating habits. It is projected that about 9% of the world population suffers from EDs. AN, BN, and BED affect more females than males. In this case, the possibility of men and women developing these conditions in their lifetime is 2.2% and 8.4%, respectively (Galmiche, Déchelotte, Lambert, & Tavolacci, retrieved 4/10/2021). Most EDs develop during puberty, particularly among teenagers and young adults aged 12 to 25. The treatment for EDs depends on the present symptoms. The treatment plan may entail a combination of psychotherapy, medications, nutritional education, and medical assessments (Herpertz-Dahlmann, & Dahmen, retrieved 4/10/2021). If left untreated, EDs may cause anxiety and depression, impaired growth and development, acute health complications, and death (Mayo Clinic, retrieved 4/10/2021)
A team of nine researchers joined efforts to determine whether parental relations with young females contribute to the development of EDs. The researchers include Gruber Maria, Bluml Victor, Holzhauser Julika, Castillo Maria Deirdre, Werneck-Rohrer Sonja, Jahn Rebecca, Werneck Harald, Leser Carmen, and Konig Daniel. These authors are professional experts in different fields in the Medical University of Vienna, which increases the study's credibility. This study sought to establish whether relations between parents and teenagers and perceived parental impact during early puberty could trigger EDs. Previous studies have linked dysfunctional ties between parents and teenagers as a significant cause of EDs. Therefore, this study sought to confirm any connection between adolescent-parental relations and EDs. Also, parents' relations with their children significantly contribute to their growth and development. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether adolescents' personality characteristics based on maternal relations may make them vulnerable to EDs. Likewise, the study wanted to determine whether a link exists between young adults' perceived parental impact on feeding habits during early puberty and EDs. In this case, the authors wanted to analyze whether adolescents' perceived parental control or abandonment in feeding practices during the initial stages of their puberty could later in life affect their eating habits. The study took place in Vienna, Austria. Specifically, it was performed at the Medical University of Vienna. It lasted for 6 months between September 2016 and February 2017 (Gruber, König, Holzhäuser, Castillo, Blüml et al., 2020).
There were 52 female participants in the study. 30 of them had no history of EDs, while 22 had a history of EDs, whether BN or AN. Purposive sampling was conducted where only the participants who were eligible for the study topic were selected. Those with EDs were selected at different departments in the Medical University of Vienna. Alternatively, the healthy participants (control group) were selected through acquaintances. The age of the participants was between 16 and 26. There is no mention of the participants' education level or occupations. Among the EDs (experimental group) participants, 17 of them had AN while 4 had BN. Also, in the experimental group, one had a history of depression while all the 21 participants diagnosed with EDs were undergoing mental treatment at the time. Conversely, the healthy subjects did not have any diagnosed psychological disorder. The standards for selecting participants with EDs included being 16 to 26 years and exhibiting positive results of BN or AN based on the ICD-10 standard procedures. The criterion for determining the control group involved the desire to join in the study and proficiency in the German language. The control group was also expected to have no history of EDs and have neutral reactions regarding "bulimia," "body dissatisfaction," and/or the "drive for thinness." Among the experimental group, one did not qualify due to insufficient data. Alternatively, among the control group, 8 were excluded after presenting some ED signs, which indicated that they could develop EDs (Gruber et al., 2020).
Various tests were conducted during the study. The study's assessment was conducted through questionnaires. An Eating-Disorder-Inventory-2 (ED1-2) in the German language was used to explore the participants' EDs signs. Additionally, the Parental-Representation-Screening-Questionnaire (PRSQ) was utilized to evaluate the quality of relations between the participants and their parents. Similarly, the Child-Feeding-Questionnaire for adolescents (CFQ-A) was administered to the participants to assess their awareness of the parental impact on feeding habits when they were 10 to 13 years. Finally, the Junior-Temperament-and-Character-Inventory 12-18 R was administered to evaluate the participants' personality traits. The researchers got informed consent from the participants before the study's commencement. The experimental group was also clinically diagnosed by experts during the recruitment process before participating in the study. The participants' procedure involved recruitment based on the selection criteria and filling questionnaires designed to meet the study's objectives. The questionnaire required details such as age, weight, education level, housing condition with or without parents, signs of psychological disorders, as well as involvement and length of psychiatric care. Upon filling in the personal data on the questionnaires, the participants were then to complete the EDI-2, PRSQ, CFQ-A, and the Junior-Temperament-and-Character-Inventory (Gruber et al., 2020).
The study's purpose was to establish a possible link between adolescents' EDs and stressful parental relations as well as the impact of parents on eating habits during early puberty based on the teenagers' viewpoint. The researchers discovered that young female adults and teenagers with EDs experienced tense relations with their parents resulting in reduced self-responsibility in eating habits during puberty than healthy subjects. The problematic relation was particularly between the teenagers and their mothers, who were either too controlling or very neglectful. Also, the rejection or negligence of parents was linked to lower self-acceptance among young female adults. At the same time, the effect of a father's abandonment was even more significant on their self-esteem. The attachment theory was linked to the above findings. The theory postulates that positive functioning relations between parents and children help them develop self-acceptance and regulate their emotions during puberty, impacting their eating habits. Therefore, the study affirms that perceived rejection by parents may increase you
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