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History
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Research Proposal
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English (U.K.)
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Women In The Post Election Violence 2007-2008, Case Study Of Molo Sub-County, Nakuru County (Research Proposal Sample)

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The objective of the study was to examine women in the post-election violence in Molo Sub County, Nakuru County in kenya, focusing on the 2007-2008 post-election violence. The findings, conclusions and recommendations on women in the post-election violence in Molo Sub County were presented.

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WOMEN IN THE POST ELECTION VIOLENCE 2007-2008, A CASE STUDY OF MOLO SUB-COUNTY, NAKURU COUNTY
PRESENTED BY
Name
Institution
Contact
DECLARATION
This proposal is my original work and has not been presented in any other university.
Signature _________________________Date ________________
(Name)
(Registration number)
SUPERVISOR
This proposal has been submitted for examination with our approval as University Supervisors.
Signature _________________________Date ________________
(Supervisor's Name)
(Department)
(Institution)
ABSTRACT
The objective of the study will be to examine women in the post-election violence in Molo Sub County, Nakuru County focusing on the 2007-2008 post-election violence. The findings, conclusions and recommendations on women in the post-election violence in Molo Sub County will be presented. The study will adopt a descriptive research methodology and the target population of 190 respondents will be targeted. The sample size will be 95 respondents and data will be collected using questionnaires.
Data collection will be done using structured questionnaires and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and statistical packages for social scientists software. The data will be presented using tables, means and percentages. The findings of the study will be beneficial to the Government as it will be able to have ideas on how to curb such happenings and other researchers. Instrumentation will include use of interviews including in-depth interviews and focused group discussions (FGD) with the intention of eliciting information and opinions. The data collected will be analyzed mainly qualitatively. Discourse analysis will be used to analyze written, spoken or sign language. The objects of discourse analysis will be variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, speeches, intonations and repetitions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u
DECLARATION…………………………...……………………..…...……….……....i
ABSTRACTii
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc325288194 \h iii
LIST OF TABLESiv
LIST OF FIGURESvi
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSx
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction1
1.1Background of the Study1
1.2 Statement of the Problem4
1.3 Research Questions5
1.4 Justification of the Research.5
1.5 Significance of the Study6
1.6 Assumptions of the Study6
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study7
1.8 Definitions of Significant terms8
1.9 Organization of the Study9
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction10
2.2 Social Consequences of 2007-2008 Post Election Violence10
2.3 Economic Consequences 2007-2008 Post Election Violence14
2.4 Peace Intiative Measures Applied Since 2007/2008 Post Election Violence18
2.5 Theoretical Framework22
2.6 Conceptual Framework26
2.7 Summary of Literature Review and Gaps to be Filled27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction29
3.2 Research Design29
3.3 Location of the Study30
3.4 Target Population31
3.5 Sample Size31
3.6 Sampling technique and Sampling Procudure32
3.7 Research Instruments33
3.8 Data Analysis35
3.9 Ethical considerations.35
REFERENCES37
APPENDICES.i
Appendix i: Questionnaire.i
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc325288317" Appendix :ii Key Informants.v
Appendix iiii Work Plan.vii
Appendix iv: Research Budget.viii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework………………………….………………….……27
Figure 1.2 Map Showing the location of Molo Sub-County…………………...…….30
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ED Economic Development
FGDFocused Group Discussions
FAOFood and Agricultural Organization
GDP Gross Domestic Product
INGO International Non-Governmental Organizations
KNCHRKenya National Commission on Human Rights
MNC Multi-National Corporations
MOUMemorandum of Understanding
NARCNational Rainbow Coalition
ODM Orange Democratic Movement
PEV Post-election Violence
PNU Party of National Unity
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The aim of this research proposal is to establish the women in the 2007/2008 post-election violence. Chapter one outlines the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, and research questions, scope of the study and justification of the study. Throughout the world accounts of war tend to portray men as the conflict resolvers and women as passive innocent victims. In conflict situations, women are much more disadvantaged compared to men. Women tend to be the most vulnerable victims of various forms of violence, from domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment, to sexual torture and other types of sexual violence. They also suffer disproportionately from displacement and deprivation (Boulding, 1988). Women are thus caught in a vicious paradox: while they are the main civilian victims of conflicts, they are often powerless to prevent the conflict, and are excluded from decision making positions, and negotiations.The definition of violence is ‘any random or organized act or threat to intimidate, physically harm, blackmail, or abuse a political stakeholder in seeking to determine, delay, or to otherwise influence an electoral process’ (Ake, 1978). If this violence occurs between the announcement of the official election results and the inauguration of the newly elected body, we speak of post-election violence (Höglund,2010). Violence can be committed by state actors (military or police), parties, rebel groups, and militia and paramilitary groups. Often the violence starts when the losing party is dissatisfied with the election results.
In 2007/2008, Kenya experienced post-election violence following the disputed presidential election results. The former President Mwai Kibaki of Party of the National Unity (PNU) was declared winner, and this prompted Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Party (ODM), and his followers who were dissatisfied with the results to claim rigging. As a result, supporters of each party turned against the other in most parts of the country leaving about 1500 people dead and 250,000 displaced (Maja, 2009). Molo Sub-County was one of the regions that experienced severe post-election violence. Businesses were destroyed and quite a number of people were internally displaced ending up in camps in and police stations. According to Maja (2009), there were also Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) flocking back from other parts of the country where violence was taking place. As a result various stakeholders came up with ways of peace building, for instance the Government formed Peace Commissions in all the Provincial Headquarters whose role was to ensure peace and reconciliation in the regions and organize counseling services for the traumatized victims of PEV. Based on this background, the study sought to establish the women in the 2007/2008 post-election in Molo Sub-County with an aim of coming up with intervention strategies for sustainable peace in the County and Kenya at large.
Because the violence took these different forms, and to be certain that violence is related to the elections, the analyses of the Waki Commission Report (2008), the Human Rights Watch (2011), the Kenya National Committee on Human Rights (KNCHR, 2008), the study of Markussen and Mbuvi (2011) and newspaper articles of the Daily Nation were used to identify these instances. Post-Election Violence will be measured by indicators of material harm done to others in order to influence the behavior of others. ‘Physical harm’ includes instances of property damage, looting, rape, forced circumcision, killing and similar crimes.
1.1.1 Historical Background to the 2007-2008 Post-Election Clashes
The country of Kenya was ruled by the iron hands of two men in succession from 1963 to 2002: Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978) and Daniel Moi (1978-2002). In 2002, there was a change: the ruling political party, the Kenya African National Union (KANU), that had ruled the country since independence, collapsed. It collapsed beneath a new political party comprised of an alliance that had formed between all of the major Kenyan tribes. This political stakeholder was named the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) (Waki Commission, 2008).
The election victory was a landslide. Mwai Kibaki of the NARC won 62% of the vote on a platform of fighting corruption, forming a coalition government that shared power amongst the various tribes, and changing the constitution within 100 days of being elected to limit the executive power that had ballooned over the previous four decades. People across Kenya from all tribes felt hope that the country’s government was finally ...
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