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The Use of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis to Select Genetically Defective Embryos (Research Proposal Sample)


The Use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis to Select Genetically Defective Embryos. research proposal

The Use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis to Select Genetically Defective Embryos.
The Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in the field of biology, is a longtime form of prenatal diagnosis intended for the elimination of embryos affected with genetic diseases after fertilization before implantation takes place. This is the consideration that couples can be put in a condition of being optimistic that their newborn will not be at risk of being affected by genetic disorders. The practice enables termination of pregnancy in the case of such disorder is traced and this, however, has raised attention in both legal practices and the ethical aspects seeking clarification.
The pre-implantation genetic diagnosis principles and ethics have raised various opinions concerning law and ethical practices which have left this act in a dilemma. The first clinical pre-implantation genetic diagnosis was applied in 1990. This process was described by Handyside et al. (1990) that the Y chromosome-specific sequence was amplified by use of PCR to determine the embryo’s sex being obtained from couples with the risk of X-linked diseases. From this experiments, only the female embryos were being transferred, and this resulted to several healthy daughters born following this procedure. Since then, this has been applied successfully in solving genetically related diseases; both single-gene disorders as well as the chromosomal abnormalities. However, the use of PGD in selection of genetically defective embryos has consequences including health complications and ethical disputes leaving the decision in dilemma. The decision of mothers wanting to have babies of their similarity by using PGD has encouraged abortion and this is unethical.
A successful application of PGD requires access of pre-embryo quickly, this is enabled through the use of well-improved biopsy techniques and the sensitive assays which are performed in a cell (single cell). In this experiment, the DNA embryo sample is examined for the presence of any defective gene that can cause a genetic disorder. For instance, hemophilia is a genetic disorder affecting only males. Others include Down’s syndrome, leukemia, and the Duchene muscular dystrophy (Lieu et al., 1995). Through a biopsied cell’s DNA, it is possible to determine the sex of an embryo, but only the female’s embryo is replaceable. However gender determination through PCR method in PGD currently has been of less use for FISH technique, which is more efficient. The FISH technique involves the spread of a single embryonic nucleic on the provided microscope slides. Upon spreading, specific probes produces each different color signals through fluorescence hybridization and testing.
Currently, the research in PGD has enabled detection of some genetic diseases including; cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A and Turner syndrome, antitrypsin deficiency, fragile X-chromosome, Down’s syndrome, Duchene muscular disease and Charcot Marie Tooth disease. In a new approach, PGD research involves a combination of both PCR and FISH laboratory techniques. Optimization of the two has positively increased efficiency to about 85% of instantaneously diagnosed cells. However, the research shows that the dropout rate of allelic cell recycling is considerably at a higher rate in comparison to the conventional single cell PCR. This has resulted to most parents regarding PGD as a way of preventing chances of getting genetically defective babies. A research from the Seaton Hall University show that women wants children who they look alike as well as determining genetic defects, but this is unethical and goes against God’s Commandment of killing, it’s a sin and illegally is a crime of murder.
Although the philosophy of PGD aims to provide the couples with relevant information concerning the risk of genetic compl...
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