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Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. Term Paper (Term Paper Sample)


A mechanical engineering work that was about machines and manufacturing, especially of plastic bottles


Materials and manufacturing engineering
Institutional Affiliation
When a manufacturing process takes place, the end product must have a useful to humans or whoever it is produced for. In the entire production of a product, the manufacturing process is the most important part of it since this is where the change of form of a material and measurements like volume and other measurements takes place. The measurements or the entire geometry of that final product must meet certain parameters to be accepted as the intended product. The manufacturing process does not include the logistics and storage or handling of materials. Manufacturing process involves: the transformation of the raw materials properties physically (hardening, softening, annealing, rolling, extrusion etc.), the production of the precise dimensions to suit design, the production of various shapes and sizes etc. Manufacturing process can be classified under four categories, they are:
* Repetitive manufacturing – in this class of manufacturing is best known to have a production line of just one product or an item closely related in the whole year CITATION Gol15 \l 1033 (Goldense, 2015).
* Discrete – this is a diverse category of production, where a range of materials are produced to form one product, through assembly CITATION Pro18 \l 1033 (Process Pro, 2018), i.e. the parts of those materials are produced then form one single product, e.g. a car, an airplane, smart phone etc.
* Job shops – this is the manufacturing process where one job is produced at a point and moved to the next point. The materials used might have same commonality but they are of different configuration, design and dimension CITATION Ham17 \l 1033 (Hammons, 2017).
* Batch – in this category, the product is being produced stage after a stage on a sequence of workstations and diverse batches are made from each of those workstations. The part transferrable to another workstation is called a batch, example is a bakery CITATION Spa17 \l 1033 (Spacey, 2017).
* Process – this relies on the recipes and formulas of processing a product. This is also where the fundamental material used in the overall production are finished products elsewhere like powders, liquids etc., this is where it differs with the repetitive manufacturing process CITATION Gol15 \l 1033 (Goldense, 2015).
Here, we are going to determine the manufacturing process of a plastic bottle, which is a repetitive type of manufacturing process as it shall be seen.
A plastic bottle is made from plastics, high density plastics. The idea of having of processing a plastic bottle is to have a material that does not leak, durable (their bio – degradable nature) and flexible. These qualities make the plastic bottle suitable for storage of water, soft drinks, cooking oil, medicine, ink, shampoo, shower gels etc. many people have improvised the plastic bottle to make flower pots, dust bins, storage for different home products, like soaps, salt, and water, some people have also found them suitable for making funnels, insulation materials among other home – made products. Basically, plastic bottles are made from polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene of a high density, but the ones of a higher density are translucent and their chemical resistance is less than the high-density polyethylene ones CITATION Gil18 \l 1033 (Gillespie, 2018). The specifications of the plastic bottles apart from the material type,
Table 1: PET properties



Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) both low density and High density




0.95 g/ml or above, but temp of 26°C



Izod Impact

1.6 ft-lbs/inch or more a 1/8-inch specimen



Tensile Yield Strength

4,000 psi or more

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