The Social and Environmental Impacts of International Events: A Case Study of Beijing and London Olympics (Thesis Proposal Sample)
To determine the social impacts of Beijing and London Olympics to the host countries
To determine the environmental and sustainability impacts of the Olympic Games event
To evaluate the complexity of short term and long term effects of international sports event management
THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS: A CASE STUDY OF BEIJING AND LONDON OLYMPICS
The Social and Environmental Impacts of International Events: A Case Study of Beijing and London Olympics
International sports events have become critical to the growth and development of major cities across the world as global competition increase tremendously. Many countries are on the forefront to win bids to host mega-events such as the Olympics and FIFA world cup as a way of enhancing their relevance in the global community. Moreover, sponsors and public authorities have identified this niche as most suitable to enhance social, economic, and environmental objectives (Brown, Graham, Andrew, and Guy 2016). Notably, the number of the investor in sports events has increased in the last decade, as international sports have become important landscapes to advance social and economic gains. The organizing and managing mega sports events is an important subject to investors and the public with demands of evidence-based reports that indicate the positive impacts of international events to the community. Event organizers are continuously expected to uphold transparency and accountability of resources together with preparing a successful event. Furthermore, the demand for evidence in international events has introduced the need for research to determine the various impacts on the host nation (Brown, Graham, Andrew, and Guy 2016).
Economists have embarked on studies to analyze the economic extent of mega sports to the host nations. Although most hypothesize the possibility of positive economic benefits, some scholars dispute the economic significance of sports (Brown, Graham, Andrew, and Guy 2016). Conversely, social and environmental impacts of international sports have received little research and literature in this discipline is limited. Moreover, it is challenging to elaborate how positive social interaction during mega-events addresses societal issues such as inequality and integration. This concern remains apparent despite the fact that sports events provoke excitement and zeal from the public. Similarly, the environmental impacts of sports mega-events have remained under-researched for decades with little comparability of literature. However, this has continued to change since the adoption of Green Games in the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Since then, cities have developed strategies to promote the green economy through sports and environmental sustainability (Fussey, Pete, and Dick 2012). More so, the debates on climate change have taken a center stage in the contemporary political, social, and economic discussions. International sports events happen in a short period but often have long-lasting legacies in the host community and provide benchmarks for the future trends in the industry. Therefore, elaborating on the significance of social and environmental events becomes a central research question, especially taking a special focus on the Beijing and London Olympic events.
International sports events are known for their importance across the world since they promote the global competitiveness of the host nation. The social and environmental impacts of these mega sports events enhance sustainability and cultural diversity in the world. The Beijing and London Olympic events are thought to have introduced significant lasting social and environmental impacts in both cities. Therefore, this study aims to explore and determine the degree of social and environmental influence of the Olympic event in both China and UK. However, to achieve this process, the outlined objectives are paramount to consider.
* To determine the social impacts of Beijing and London Olympics to the host countries
* To determine the environmental and sustainability impacts of the Olympic Games event
* To evaluate the complexity of short term and long term effects of international sports event management
The research question and objectives will enable a comprehensive analysis of the underlying social and environmental impacts associated with the Olympic Games event. The significance of the study is derived from the fact that these games are internationally recognized and often confer profound changes in the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts of the host destination. Furthermore, the research findings will provide substantial evidence concerning the importance of Olympic Games to the social welfare of the global community.
Hosting Olympic Games always come with a lot of excitement and national pride. However, it may be hard to ascertain the economic impact of these mega events; the social and environmental impacts can easily be seen (Fussey, Pete, and Dick 2012). People from all walks of life are united together by these events.
In the recent past, many civic and public agencies have explicitly recognized the need to put into consideration the environmental externalities consequent to hosting sporting events. Following the Olympic Games which took place in USA’s City of Los Angeles (1984), the possibility of key sporting activities having the environmental and social impact on the host country has increased (Fussey, Pete, and Dick 2012). Many sporting institutions such as FIFA and other sports' governing body all agreed and recognized that there were substantial reasons to comprehend the environmental effects of the sporting events which they give sponsorship, regulate and host (Fussey, Pete, and Dick 2012). Before the official opening of the London Olympic, the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) emphasized on the need for environmental conservation (Getz, Donald, and Stephen 2016). The organizers launched Sustainable Development Strategy in the effort to promote the eradication of carbon emissions, water wastage, and other wastes while maximizing environmental friendly usage (Getz, Donald, and Stephen 2016). Increased prominence on negative environmental effects mitigation has become a major argument underlining other mega events. For instance, measures to reduce carbon emissions have spread to other countries and subsequent major tournaments. In 2006, during FIFA World Cup Games, FIFA reiterated the need to use sporting activities as avenues of passing strong messages of promoting environmental conservation (Getz, Donald, and Stephen 2016). In so doing, they launch FIFA Green Goal Program to make subsequent World Cups one of the ways of creating environmental awareness in the world. They rolled out ways to minimize resource wastage in terms of energy, refuse, transport and water to offset the numerous tones of carbons which are likely to be emitted during the event and subsequent world major tournaments (Getz, Donald, and Stephen 2016). Following the 2000 Sidney Olympic Games, the state of Victoria soon set out measures to ensure the 2006 and subsequent other mega-events carbon neutral and has low wastage of resources. As a result of these sporting events, the United Nation on Environmental Program took the theme of “greening” sports to its Global Forum of Environmental Conservation which brought together many delegates from different countries. In their attempts to understand this theme, they call on various countries to review the effects of major sporting tournaments on the environment (Getz, Donald, and Stephen 2017). Highly regarded as one of the exemplary major tournament, the Beijing Summer Olympics is still fresh in many minds. They were meticulously planned and expertly delivered. The city transport services flowed seamlessly despite the anticipation of traffic jams during the games. One of the major environmental benefits of hosting this game which cannot go unnoticed is the creation of first urban water recycling system. Not to say, this mega sporting event also produced the country’s biggest metropolitan parkland (Giulianotti et al. 2015, 121).
The above discussions are clear indications that there are some signs of progress among the organizers of these events to recognize the environmental externalities surrounding the development and strategy executions with several pieces of evidence of mainstreaming concerns on environmental conservations. The outlines of major tournaments such as the FIFA World Cups and Olympic Games, in particular, have also provided acknowledgments of local ecosystem impacts in relations to the effects of event-related consumptions (Giulianotti et al. 2015, 128). Actually, this made the committee tasked with the responsibilities of organizing these major tournaments to express their desire of trying to be part and parcel of solutions and not part of problems in issues pertaining environmental conservations.
The analyses of Ecological Footprint of these two major events and subsequent major sporting activities have soon gained momentum, especially after the Beijing Olympic Games. Ecological Footprint has soon been used to account for the earthly consumptions of available resources. This approach has given snapshot estimates of the demand placed on global bio-capacity and the supply of the same bio-capacity (Giulianotti et al. 2015, 132).
Conversely, these mega-events have also come under sharp criticism for failing to conserve the environment. The environmental consequences involve everything from raising new stadiums, parking lots and other structures to the handling of sanitation during these major tournaments (Mowforth, Martin, and Ian, 2013, 5). Many people have criticized policies of offsetting carbon emissions during these events as a mere comfort at a time when the world needs to fully eradicate carbon emissions. Moreover, the so-called offsets do not put into consideration the amount of energy used to power the stadiums, the amount of water used to irrigate the field and to clean the toilets ...