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Caffeine addiction case study (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
<p>Conduct a study on caffeine addiction</p> source..
Content:

Caffeine Addiction Case Study
Name
Institution
Caffeine Addiction
Description of the Condition
Did you know that the global estimate of caffeine consumption is approximately 120,000 annually? “This scale makes caffeine one of the world’s leading psychoactive substances used by the global population ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1002/hbm.20732", "ISBN" : "1097-0193", "ISSN" : "1097-0193", "PMID" : "19219847", "abstract" : "Caffeine is a commonly used neurostimulant that also produces cerebral vasoconstriction by antagonizing adenosine receptors. Chronic caffeine use results in an adaptation of the vascular adenosine receptor system presumably to compensate for the vasoconstrictive effects of caffeine. We investigated the effects of caffeine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in increasing levels of chronic caffeine use. Low (mean = 45 mg/day), moderate (mean = 405 mg/day), and high (mean = 950 mg/day) caffeine users underwent quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging on four separate occasions: twice in a caffeine abstinent state (abstained state) and twice in a caffeinated state following their normal caffeine use (native state). In each state, there were two drug conditions: participants received either caffeine (250 mg) or placebo. Gray matter CBF was tested with repeated-measures analysis of variance using caffeine use as a between-subjects factor, and correlational analyses were conducted between CBF and caffeine use. Caffeine reduced CBF by an average of 27% across both caffeine states. In the abstained placebo condition, moderate and high users had similarly greater CBF than low users; but in the native placebo condition, the high users had a trend towards less CBF than the low and moderate users. Our results suggest a limited ability of the cerebrovascular adenosine system to compensate for high amounts of daily caffeine use.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Addicott", "given" : "Merideth A", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Yang", "given" : "Lucie L", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Peiffer", "given" : "Ann M", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Burnett", "given" : "Luke R", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Burdette", "given" : "Jonathan H", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Chen", "given" : "Michael Y", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Hayasaka", "given" : "Satoru", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Kraft", "given" : "Robert A", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Maldjian", "given" : "Joseph A", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Laurienti", "given" : "Paul J", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Human brain mapping", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2009" ] ] }, "page" : "3102-3114", "title" : "The effect of daily caffeine use on cerebral blood flow: How much caffeine can we tolerate?", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "30" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=abfd51c7-5b9c-434e-9088-efae157abb94" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Addicott et al., 2009)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Addicott et al., 2009 p. 3102)”. For example, approximately 75% of the American population drink coffee on a daily basis while the Asian population form the highest proportion of people using caffeine products on a daily basis ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.009", "ISBN" : "0920-9964 (Print)", "ISSN" : "09209964", "PMID" : "19006656", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Adolfo", "given" : "Amy B", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "AhnAllen", "given" : "Christopher G", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Tidey", "given" : "Jennifer W", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Schizophrenia research", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2009" ] ] }, "page" : "192-197", "title" : "Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia.", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "107" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=300e187c-21d3-4efb-b58c-f03fc09cd8d9" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Adolfo, AhnAllen, & Tidey, 2009)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Adolfo, AhnAllen, & Tidey, 2009 p. 197). Soft drinks such as tea and coffee are some of the beverages that contain large amounts of caffeine because they affect one’s health status when taken in large amounts. However, it is appreciable that prolonged consumption of caffeine results in addiction secondary to dependence ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.3109/07853890009002029", "ISBN" : "0785-3890 (Print)", "ISSN" : "0785-3890", "PMID" : "11209966", "abstract" : "Caffeine and nicotine are the most common psychostimulant drugs used worldwide. Structural neuroimaging findings associated with caffeine and nicotine consumption are limited and primarily reflect the putative relationship between smoking and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a finding that warrants further appraisal of its clinical implications. The application of newer brain imaging modalities that measure subtle haemodynamic changes or tissue-based chemistry in order to better elucidate brain functional processes, including mechanisms underlying addiction to nicotine and caffeine and the brain functional consequences, provide intriguing findings. Potential influences of caffeine and nicotine on the functional contrast, or metabolic response, to neural activation also necessitates the careful appraisal of the effects that these commonly used drugs may have on the results of functional imaging.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Dager", "given" : "S R", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Friedman", "given" : "S D", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Annals of medicine", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2000" ] ] }, "page" : "592-599", "title" : "Brain imaging and the effects of caffeine and nicotine.", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "32" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=d2248e2b-1c23-4f9b-985b-7cf1fd8a3075" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Dager & Friedman, 2000)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Dager & Friedman, 2000 p. 598) (Ries, 2009 p. 111).
Caffeine is an active stimulant of the CNS and its regular use results in repeated stimulation, which leads to physical dependence to caffeine ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1353/bhm.2003.0012", "ISBN" : "0415927226", "abstract" : "Caffeine is the world's most popular drug! Almost all of us start our day with a jolt of caffeine from coffee, tea or cola. And many of us crave chocolate when we're stressed or depressed. Without it we're lethargic, head-achy and miserable. Why? Why do we crave caffeine? How much do we really know about our number one drug of choice?Here is the first natural, cultural, and artistic history of our favorite mood enhancer--how it was discovered, its early uses, and the unexpected parts it has played in medicine, religion, painting, poetry, learning, and love. Weinberg and Bealer tell an intriguing story of a remarkable substance that has figured prominently in the exchanges of trade and intelligence among nations and whose most common sources, coffee, tea, and chocolate, have been both promoted as productive of health and creativity and banned as corrupters of the body and mind or subverters of social order. Some Highlights From the \"World of Caffeine\" Balzac's addiction to caffeine drove him to eat coffee, as some schizophrenic patients are observed to do today, and may have killed himMary Tuke breaks the male monopoly on tea in England in 1725The ways caffeine functions as a \"smart pill\"Goethe's responsibility for the discovery of caffeineDid a mini Ice Age help bring coffee, tea and chocolate to popularity in Europe?What is the mystery of coffee's origin?As good as gold: the stories of how caffeine, in its various forms, was used as cash in China, Africa, Central America and EgyptWhat does the civet cat have to do with the most costly coffee on earth today? \"The World of Caffeine\" is a captivating tale of art and society -- from India to Balzac to cybercafes -- and the ultimate caffeine resource.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Eden", "given" : "Trudy A. (Trudy Ann)", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Bulletin of the History of Medicine", "id" : "ITEM-1"...
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