6 pages/≈1650 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients (Essay Sample)
This is a Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients. This literature review seeks to establish whether smoking can lead to lung exacerbation.source..
Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients
Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients
In the present day, many people die as a result of using tobacco. In fact, the figure of people, who lose their lives worldwide, keeps rising annually. This is from approximately 100 million to 10 billion death records (Wise, Kanner, Lindgren, Connett, Altose, Enright, Tashkin, 2003). COPD is an avertable and curable disease condition attributed to airflow obstruction, which is not entirely easy to reverse. This attribute of airflow obstruction is in most cases ongoing and, additionally, linked to anomalous reaction of the lungs to foreign materials like gas as a result of smoking cigarettes (Anthonisen, 2004). Despite the fact that, this condition has an effect on the lungs, it leads to general outcomes. Some of these outcomes include deterioration and exacerbation of the lungs. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether smoking leads to worsening and exacerbation of the lungs in patients living with this health condition.
To manage COPD, it is prudent to bring to a halt smoking habits. Above all, this is one of the most successful ways to stay healthy and avert lung related diseases. On the contrary, people who take pleasure in smoking, have a 50% likelihood of progressing COPD in the duration of their life (Albers, Schermer, Heijdra, Molema, Akkermans, van, Weel, 2008). It is evident that, the danger of contracting COPD reduces by approximately 50%, when one stops the smoking habit. Various intervention programs enable smokers give up this habit efficiently. For instance, nicotine substitution treatments, bupropion in addition to varenicline, are the known means to help smokers quit smoothly (Albers, et al., 2008). In spite of studies indicating that these are the most effective means for ending smoking, very few patients cease smoking promptly.
The study adopted a cross-sectional analytic design and carried out with a structured questionnaire to make possible systematic data collection. A step by step regression analysis was used on COPD patients. The sample size was 10 randomly selected COPD patients with 1-2 years of struggle with the disease. Data compilation was by researcher-controlled questionnaires. This is because it helped achieve factual primary results as informants easily responded to the simple questions. Focus group discussions held was with a section of people diagnosed with COPD. Key informant interviews were also held with medical practitioners like doctors and health care nurses. Data entry and analysis was done using the statistical package for health science, EPI INFO. Normal test of proportions was used to investigate whether smoking increases the risk of exacerbation and further lung deterioration to the population of people diagnosed with COPD. Chi Square and Correlation Analysis were used to determine the association of smoking with the risk of exacerbation and further lung deterioration to this population.
The study encountered ethical considerations for instance making the data confidential. The main worry in this research was the protection of equally the rights of people diagnosed with COPD and the integrity of the informants – nurses and other medical practitioners like doctors. This was ascertained by ensuring that all materials obtained were not revealed to the public without the informants consent. The possible shortcomings were management of time during primary research. Without this, research would take too long to complete, thereby, complicating final analysis, recommendations and conclusions. Data obtained was analyzed qualitatively and categorized gender sensitively during collection, gathering and planning of the recourses.
Evidence of Searching the Literature
MEDLINE/CQUniversity Library Discover It/CINAHL with Full Text/Cochrane library/PubMed
Keywords: Literature Review on COPD, smoking, deterioration, exacerbation, lung function
Search filters or limits: Language/Publication years/Peer reviewed/Human
In accordance with the World Health Organisation 100 million, people lose their lives as a result of using tobacco in the present day (Anthonisen, 2004). This is a study that aims at determining whether smoking leads to lung exacerbation and degeneration in patients living with COPD. Owing to this fact, this pattern will advance to approximately over one billion people losing their lives (Wise, et al., 2003). This rate is equitable to the growing number of people taking tobacco packaged in different forms. This is a problem that third world countries are currently facing in the present day. On the other hand, it is clear that very little emphasis is on gases and other pollutants that non-smokers experience in developing countries. It is true that there are various irritants that accelerate the rate of lung exacerbation and degeneration in patients with COPD.
According to Wang, (2000) in the journal, a survey of health status and ex-smokers before and after quitting smoking, approximately 80% of smokers in the world come from third world countries. It is clear that the effects of tobacco leads to the death of approximately 6 million people annually and about 11% of deaths of adults in the entire world (Wang, (2000). Approximately 51% of smokers lose their lives from using tobacco-attributed products that lead to a nuclear of diseases (Albers, et al., 2008). Unaccounted for tobacco-attributed deaths will multiply to above 7 million annually by the year 2030, and 78% of the deaths will take place in third world countries (Bolliger, et al., 2002). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a significant and an advancing basis of deaths in nations despite the financial status of any nation. This is bearing in mind that, smoking is a significant cause of lung complications in patients living with COPD. The World Health Organisation (WHO) indicates that approximately 81 million people from significant parts of the world have mild to critical COPD (Eberly, et al., 2003). It is true that, sooner than the year 2030, COPD will be the 3rd primary root of death across the world (Eberly, et al., 2003). On the other hand, COPD is hardly in the medical figures of a large number of countries in the whole world.
It is true that no one identifies a large number of affected people in many developing nations. Many patients who go through extreme stages of symptoms lead a poor life and, in the long run, they succumb to the initial hurdles caused by the disease (Wang, Zhang, Li, et al., 2002). Despite the fact that cigarette smoking is one of the established tobacco-attributed problems that lead to COPD, there are other kinds of tobacco smoking prevalent in a number of nations. In addition to this, air pollutants, which arise from smoldering of wood and other types of fossil fuel, lead to COPD (Pletcher, et al., 2006). It is also evident that upon exposing people passively to cigarette smoke, they can as well contract COPD. This is by a process attributed to an increased burdening of the lungs as a result of inhalation of toxic elements and gases. It is also true that a large number of smokers contract a couple of respiratory damage owing to COPD (Ryu, et al., 2005).
According to authors, Boggia, Farinaro, Grieco, Lucariello, & Carbone (2008) in a study conducted in Southern Italy, in relation to this matter, 51% of smokers ultimately contract COPD. This is from the International Intervention for Chronic Obstruction Lung Disease policies. This is because it offers a medical foundation for the recommendation and remedy that can be provided to smokers that in case they proceed with smoking habits in their entire life, they have a chance or two of contracting COPD (Remy-Jardin, Edme, Boulenguez, Remy, Mastora, Sobaszek, 2002). In third world nations, exacerbations of COPD amount to the highest drawback on the medical field. In America, the whole cost of respiratory diseases are approximately at 7% of the whole medical care budget, with COPD amounting to 57% of t...
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