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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients (Essay Sample)

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This is a Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients. This literature review seeks to establish whether smoking can lead to lung exacerbation.

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Content:

Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients
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Literature Review on the effects of Smoking in COPD Patients
Introduction
In the present day, many people die as a result of using tobacco. In fact, the figure of people, who lose their lives worldwide, keeps rising annually. This is from approximately 100 million to 10 billion death records (Wise, Kanner, Lindgren, Connett, Altose, Enright, Tashkin, 2003). COPD is an avertable and curable disease condition attributed to airflow obstruction, which is not entirely easy to reverse. This attribute of airflow obstruction is in most cases ongoing and, additionally, linked to anomalous reaction of the lungs to foreign materials like gas as a result of smoking cigarettes (Anthonisen, 2004). Despite the fact that, this condition has an effect on the lungs, it leads to general outcomes. Some of these outcomes include deterioration and exacerbation of the lungs. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether smoking leads to worsening and exacerbation of the lungs in patients living with this health condition.
To manage COPD, it is prudent to bring to a halt smoking habits. Above all, this is one of the most successful ways to stay healthy and avert lung related diseases. On the contrary, people who take pleasure in smoking, have a 50% likelihood of progressing COPD in the duration of their life (Albers, Schermer, Heijdra, Molema, Akkermans, van, Weel, 2008). It is evident that, the danger of contracting COPD reduces by approximately 50%, when one stops the smoking habit. Various intervention programs enable smokers give up this habit efficiently. For instance, nicotine substitution treatments, bupropion in addition to varenicline, are the known means to help smokers quit smoothly (Albers, et al., 2008). In spite of studies indicating that these are the most effective means for ending smoking, very few patients cease smoking promptly.
Methodology
The study adopted a cross-sectional analytic design and carried out with a structured questionnaire to make possible systematic data collection. A step by step regression analysis was used on COPD patients. The sample size was 10 randomly selected COPD patients with 1-2 years of struggle with the disease. Data compilation was by researcher-controlled questionnaires. This is because it helped achieve factual primary results as informants easily responded to the simple questions. Focus group discussions held was with a section of people diagnosed with COPD. Key informant interviews were also held with medical practitioners like doctors and health care nurses. Data entry and analysis was done using the statistical package for health science, EPI INFO. Normal test of proportions was used to investigate whether smoking increases the risk of exacerbation and further lung deterioration to the population of people diagnosed with COPD. Chi Square and Correlation Analysis were used to determine the association of smoking with the risk of exacerbation and further lung deterioration to this population.
The study encountered ethical considerations for instance making the data confidential. The main worry in this research was the protection of equally the rights of people diagnosed with COPD and the integrity of the informants – nurses and other medical practitioners like doctors. This was ascertained by ensuring that all materials obtai...
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