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6 pages/≈1650 words
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APA
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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English (U.S.)
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Mammograms: Major Variables Studied And Their Definitions (Other (Not Listed) Sample)

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The order required that i search for five articles focusing on whether mammograms can save lives. I was then required to follow the template and provide details such as the conceptual framework, design, and major variables e.t.c.

source..
Content:


Mammograms
Student’s Name
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Article 1CitationMorrell, S., Taylor, R., Roder, D., Robson, B., Gregory, M., & Craig, K. (2017). Mammography service screening and breast cancer mortality in New Zealand: A national cohort study 1999–2011. British Journal of Cancer. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2017.6.Conceptual FrameworkRandomized trials have, in the past, provided insights into breast cancer mortality and screening mammography and subsequently informed screening recommendations. Some meta-analyses have indicated the contribution of mammography screening to reduced breast cancer mortality. However, the exclusion of meta-analyses studies with randomization bias has suggested that mammography screening does not translate to reduced breast cancer mortality. Therefore, the researchers employ the BreastScreen Aotearoa (BSA) program to investigate several hypotheses regarding the breast cancer mortality rates in the never-screened and ever-screened women, and the regularly screened and less regularly screened. Design/MethodThe present study was a retrospective cohort study that investigated breast cancer mortality with reference to screening mammography. The BSA program along with the death and cancer registries provided data of the women in New Zealand who had undergone screening or diagnosis between 1999 and 2011. Sample/settingThe sample comprised women from New Zealand aged between 45 years and 69 years. The setting was New Zealand, and the sample excluded the never-screened women. Major variables studied and their definitionsThe major variables comprised age and ethnicity of the women included in the study. The age ranged between 45-69 years and ethnicity comprised the Pacific and Maori with “other” women implying women of European descent residing in New Zealand. The outcome variable in this study referred to breast cancer mortality for every cohort year.MeasurementThe breast cancer mortality for every cohort year served as the outcome measure did not require a scale because it was direct. Data analysisData analysis involved calculating breast cancer mortality with respect to participation and non-participation in the screening mammography service between 2000 and 2011. For ever-screen women, the researchers determined the years each person participated in screening right from the first screen. It also determined the years that the never-screened did not participate in the BSA program. The researchers used negative binomial regression for the adjustment of the repeated measures and Poisson regression in case the negative binomial model did not apply. FindingsThe ever-screened group achieved significant reductions in the overall breast cancer mortality when compared to the never-screened population. The regularly screened also had relatively lower mortality rates compared to the less screened counterparts. Further, the ever-screened women had better prognostic factors when compared to their never-screened counterparts due to early detection.Appraisal/Worth to PracticeIt proved challenging to eliminate the lead-time bias. However, the researchers managed to eliminate the predisposition of the study to lead time bias. It is also not possible to determine the exact causes of variations in breast cancer mortality for the ever-screened and never-screened populations. The study was subject to screening selection bias.Article 2CitationJohns, L. E., Coleman, D. A., Swerdlow, A. J. & Moss, S. M. (2017). Effect of population breast screening on breast cancer mortality up to 2005 in England and Wales: An individual-level cohort study. British Journal of Cancer, 116, 246–252.Conceptual FrameworkVarious countries set up population breast screening based on evidence in previous randomized trials that suggested the ability of mammographic screening to bring down breast cancer mortality. Even so, controversies exist regarding the value of putting in place these screening programs with respect to breast cancer mortality. As such, this called for the evaluation of the efficacy of these programs based on the existing individual-level data.Design/MethodThe study examines breast cancer screening histories, including the day of death of persons with breast cancer from the screening call and recall databases. The researchers coded the data of the people with breast cancer depending on their death causes.Sample/settingThe cohort sample included 988, 090 women residing in Wales and a third of those in England within the age range of 49 and 64 years.
Major variables studied and their definitions
The major variables in this study included the socioeconomic status and age. The age ranged between 49 years and 64 years. MeasurementThe researchers employed the Townsend Index to provide estimates of the socioeconomic status of the participants in the study (Phillimore et al., 1994). It utilized postcode of residence of the women who took part in screening to develop socioeconomic estimates.Data analysisData analysis involved carrying out the intention-to-screen analyses. The researchers also adjust the results against the lead-time bias. It also involved performing a cumulative incidence analysis to take into account overdiagnosis as a result of screening. The standardized mortality rates allowed for the adjustment depending on age and year. The Poisson regression allowed for the calculation of rate ratios, confidence intervals, as well as p-values. FindingsThe mortality rate remained relatively lower at 17 percent for the invited than the uninvited women. However, the mortality rate rose to 21 percen

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