Major Factors Influencing Shigellosis (Research Proposal Sample)
The task was to research on various factors influencing shigellosis among patients in karatina subcounty hospital and the sample was about collection of data and questionnaires to come up with expected conclusionsource..
MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SHIGELLOSIS AMONG PATIENTS IN KARATINA SUB-COUNTY HOSPITAL
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA IN KENYA MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES
This research proposal is my original work and it has never been submitted for examination to any institution, college or university.
Signed ……………………………………… Date ……………………………
This research proposal has been submitted for examination purpose with our approval as the appointed supervisors.
Mr. Francis Njoroge
Signed ……………………………………… Date ……………………………
Mrs. Lydia Githinji
Signed ……………………………………… Date ……………………………
First I would like to pass my sincere acknowledgement to the Almighty God for His blessings and guidance up to this far. Secondly I would like to thank my supervisors Mr. Francis Njoroge and Mrs. Lydia Githinji. I would like to mention my appreciation to my family for their support and sponsorship. Lastly to all who have contributed in any way or other, I say accept my heartfelt gratitude. Anyone overlooked must pardon the poor recollection of a grateful student.
I dedicate this proposal to my loving family, relatives and friends whose contribution, encouragement, moral support and patience have helped me a great deal throughout the research and study at Outspan Medical College, Nyeri.
Shigellosis ranks among the major gastrointestinal diseases afflicting the world's population. Shigellosis is an acute enteric disease that is attributed to one of four species, S. dysenteriae, S.flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Biomedical literature was reviewed to identify the predominant species occurring in a country. Confirmation of the predominant species verified the belief that the level of economic development affects species distribution. Other findings that bear on the variability of pathogenicity include the manner in which the organism is transmitted, the role of malnutrition, and emerging antibiotic resistance. The purpose of the study will be to explore the major factors influencing shigellosis among patients in Karatina Sub-County Hospital. The broad objective of the study will be major factors influencing shigellosis among patients in Karatina Sub-County Hospital while the specific objectives will be personal hygiene, socio economic status and malnutrition. The researcher will employ descriptive cross sectional study. This will generate the various answers that this research seeks. The target population to this study will be 50 patients suffering from shigellosis. The sample size will be 50 respondents because of the small size. The researcher will use purposive sampling method to collect data. Data analysis will refer to examining what will be collected in the research study and making deductions and inferences. The raw data will be fed in the computer and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The analyzed data will be presented in tables, pie charts and bar graphs. Every effort will be made to protect participant confidentiality.
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Declaration PAGEREF _Toc40261214 \h iiAcknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc40261215 \h iiiDedication PAGEREF _Toc40261216 \h ivAbstractvTable of Contents PAGEREF _Toc40261218 \h viListof Figures PAGEREF _Toc40261219 \h viiiOperational Definition of TermsixList of Abbreviations and Acronyms PAGEREF _Toc40261221 \h xCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc40261222 \h 11.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc40261223 \h 11.2 Background Information PAGEREF _Toc40261224 \h 11.3 Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc40261225 \h 31.4 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc40261226 \h 41.5 Research questions PAGEREF _Toc40261227 \h 51.6 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc40261228 \h 51.7 The scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc40261229 \h 5CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc40261230 \h 6LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc40261231 \h 62.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc40261232 \h 62.2 Overview of shigellosis PAGEREF _Toc40261233 \h 62.3 Personal hygiene PAGEREF _Toc40261234 \h 82.5 Socio economic status PAGEREF _Toc40261235 \h 92.6 Malnutrition PAGEREF _Toc40261236 \h 122.7 Critical review of literature PAGEREF _Toc40261237 \h 142.6 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc40261238 \h 15CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc40261239 \h 16RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc40261240 \h 163.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc40261241 \h 163.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc40261242 \h 163.3 Target population PAGEREF _Toc40261243 \h 163.4 Sample size PAGEREF _Toc40261244 \h 173.5 Sample Design PAGEREF _Toc40261245 \h 173.6 Data Collection Procedure and Instruments PAGEREF _Toc40261246 \h 173.7 Data Presentation and Analysis Techniques PAGEREF _Toc40261247 \h 183.8 Expected Outcome and Limitations PAGEREF _Toc40261248 \h 183.9 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc40261249 \h 18REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc40261250 \h 19APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc40261251 \h 23Appendix I -Letter of Introduction PAGEREF _Toc40261252 \h 23Appendix II– Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc40261253 \h 24Appendix III: Research Budget PAGEREF _Toc40261254 \h 27Appendix IV: Research Work Plan PAGEREF _Toc40261255 \h 28
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Conceptual framework ………………………………………………….…..….. 15
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Dysentery- A disease marked by frequent watery bowel movements, often with blood and mucus, and characterized by pain, urgency to have a bowel movement, fever, and dehydration
Food-borne - A disease that is transmitted by eating or handling contaminated food
Knowledge - They are facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education
Malnutrition - It is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function
Meninges - Outer covering of the spinal cord and brain. Infection is called meningitis, which can lead to damage to the brain or spinal cord and lead to death
Shigellosis - It is an infection of the intestinal tract by a group of bacteria called Shigella
Socio economic - It is an economic and sociological combined total measured of a person’s status work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education and occupation
Stool - Passage of fecal material; a bowel movement
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AIDS-Immune deficiency syndrome
EIEC-Enteroinvasive E. Coli
ELISA-Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
GALT-Gut associated lymphoid tissues
HLA-Human Leukocyte Antigen
HUS-Hemolytic uremic syndrome
MHC-Major histocompatibility complex
MOH-Ministry of Health
PCR-polymerase chain reaction
This chapter contains the background information on major factors influencing shigellosis among patients, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, study justification and scope of the study.
1.2 Background Information
Shigellosis is an infection of the intestinal tract by a group of bacteria called Shigella. The bacterium is named in honor of Shiga, a Japanese researcher, who discovered the organism in 1897. Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery or Marlow syndrome, in its most severe manifestation, is a foodborne illness caused by infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella (Bardhan et al, 2013). The causative organism is frequently found in water polluted with human faeces and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The usual mode of transmission is directly person-to-person hand-to-mouth, in the setting of poor hygiene. Worldwide, Shigella is estimated to cause 80 million cases of disease and 1.5 million deaths annually. Shigella is estimated to cause ∼125 million diarrhoeal episodes annually, leading to around 160 000 deaths, with a third of these associated with young children (GBD, 2017).
In the United States, there are approximately 14,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of Shigellosis and an estimated 448,240 total cases (85% due to S. sonnei) that occur each year. Groups at increased risk of Shigellosis include children in child-care centers and persons in custodial institutions, where personal hygiene is difficult to maintain (Kendall, 2012). The causative organism is frequently found in water polluted with human feces, and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The usual mode of transmission is directly person-to-person hand-to-mouth, in the setting of poor hygiene among children ((Nygren, 2013).
Estimated 30-45% cases of Shigellosis occur annually ...
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